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The investigators would like to determine whether ultrasound features of the ovaries can be used to reliably diagnose different types of anovulatory disorders in women across all body types. The study will also try to establish whether ultrasound features of the ovary can reflect the degree of reproductive and metabolic problems that a woman with irregular or absent periods might be experiencing.
The correlation between metabolic syndrome and carotid artery stenosis is well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between morbid obesity and carotid artery stenosis.
This weight loss study will investigate the impact of calorie distribution across a day (large breakfast meals and smaller evening meals versus small breakfast meals and large evening meals) on body weight, and physiological and behavioral mechanisms regulating energy balance. Participants will undergo 2 x 4 week energy restriction protocols in a randomized cross over design; big breakfast (45% of calories in the morning meal, 20% at dinner) and big dinner (45% of calories in the evening meal, 20% at breakfast). We predict that timing of eating will influence energy balance, because morning energy expenditure is amplified in comparison to the evening. This study will allow us to assess whether the increased energy expenditure in the morning is linked to natural biological circadian rhythm or behavioral adaptions.
The study aims to characterize mitochondrial metabolism in the liver of obesity surgery patients and to study its relationships with hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.
Standard Heparin management, based on total body weight, is not well established for obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of using lean body mass (LBM) to determine pump flow rate and/or Heparin dosage in obese patients undergoing CPB.
Today the majority of pregnant women in the United States are either overweight or obese at conception with their offspring having greater adiposity at birth, a 2-fold greater risk of later obesity, and neonatal insulin resistance. It was long thought that breast milk composition was fairly uniform among women, having been optimized through evolutionary time to provide adequate sole nutrition for the growing infant regardless of the environmental circumstances. However, recent evidence shows that breast milk is a highly complex fluid with significant inter-individual variation in hormonal and cytokine concentrations. Pervasive maternal obesity is an evolutionarily novel condition for the human species but little effort has yet been made to systematically examine how this novel condition is associated with breast milk adipose-tissue derived hormone and cytokine (adipocytokine) variation, or whether that variation relates to infant metabolic status. The objective of this study is to comprehensively assess the "lactational programming" hypothesis, that is, whether or not recently documented variation in breast-milk composition is related to both maternal adiposity and to infant metabolic status. The central hypothesis is that a graded, dose-response relationship between maternal adiposity and adipocytokine concentrations in breast milk exists and that milk adipocytokine concentrations are associated with altered body composition in their exclusively breast-fed offspring. The results of the study will be used to design interventions to reduce maternal weight during pregnancy and lactation and to augment lactation education materials to focus on the needs of obese breast-feeding women.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are major global health concerns as they commonly co-occur and are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. The Indigenous (First Nations, Metis and Inuit) population bears a disproportionate burden of T2DM in Canada. The prevalence of obesity among Indigenous individuals is approximately 31.2% compared to 18.6% for the non-Indigenous population. In 2011, 16.7% of Manitoba's population, or four times the Canadian average, identified as Indigenous. At the same time, prevalence of T2DM in Manitoba is on the rise. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment modality for the improvement and resolution of T2DM in patients who are obese. We aim to compare the effectiveness of bariatric surgery with conventional medical treatment in treating metabolic diseases in Indigenous people; the findings of which will assist in future treatment and program planning. Our objective is to determine whether Manitoba's urban Indigenous population will achieve better diabetic control and improved rates of remission of T2DM with bariatric surgery compared to best diabetic medical care.
This is a family based genotype-phenotype study designed to assess genetic and environmental influences on obesity, insulin resistance and beta cell function in the context of gestational diabetes.
Dysfunction of adipose tissue in obesity, inflammation and aging: mechanisms and effects of physical exercise and omega-3 fatty acids.
This study is a randomized, adaptive, parallel arm study. The treatment group will receive the Elira wearable patch system and provided instructions for use and advised to follow a 1200 calorie diet. The control group will be asked to follow a 12 calorie diet only. Each group will be followed for 12 weeks. Total body weight loss will be measured as well as appetite changes. Safety data will be collected throughout the study period. Safety and effectiveness will be determined based on differences between the groups.