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In Helsinki BIrth Cohort 2018-2020 a large, longitudinal and well-phenotyped birth cohort of infants and their parents will be established. All the children born in Helsinki Women's Hospital and Espoo hospital (15 000 annual deliveries), their mothers and fathers will be recruited in the study. Data on maternal and paternal diet quality, physical activity and depression during pregnancy will be collected. Newborn body composition will be measured and registry data will be collected. Health of offspring will be followed during their later life.
The primary goal of this study is to assess the impact of an innovative strategy to prevent undernutrition and obesity in early childhood in children 0-24 months in Mexico. This study is designed to evaluate the impact of promoting adequate infant an young child feeding practices and the use of SQ-LNS (Small Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements) on the nutritional status of infants and young children. The study will be conducted in peri-urban areas of Tepic, Nayarit in Mexico in conjunction with the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez and the Nayarit Secretariat of Health.
Childhood obesity is increasing with more than one-third of adolescents currently overweight and one in five with obesity. The lifelong incidence of obesity-related morbidities is also increasing with childhood obesity. It is not yet known how obesity develops in an individual, specifically in early childhood. Further, it is unclear what mechanistic role a child's earliest nutrition or changing intestinal flora has in the etiology of obesity. Very young children are developing appetite and satiety patterns early in life. Nutrition and gut microbial flora have impact on how these processes unfold, but specific mechanisms are not yet well understood. The investigators hypothesize that formula-fed infants with changes in their microbial flora are more likely to have altered carbohydrate metabolism, evidenced by greater imbalances of fatty acid production, and are more likely to have accelerated growth trajectory due to satiety disruption. The investigators further hypothesize that altered carbohydrate metabolism, e.g. imbalances of short- and long-chain fatty acid levels in the gut, stimulate cellular stress and affect specific gut hormones. This study will compare the microbiome of the intestinal microbial flora in two groups of infants, one breast fed and the other formula fed, using longitudinally collected fecal samples from both groups. Samples will be subjected to shotgun metagenomic analysis and simultaneous metabolomic analysis. A bioinformatics approach will elucidate key differences among and between sample groups, and will further analyze bacterial gene expression levels related to carbohydrate metabolism. This study will compare the expression of human proteins involved in cellular stress response and gut peptide signaling by applying quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction to human messenger RNA isolated from the longitudinally collected samples from both groups. Finally, this study will monitor the trajectory of growth and feeding over the first 2 years of life. The project's focus on the influence of different early feeding types, microbial flora changes, and altered carbohydrate metabolism leading to disruption of gut-brain signaling will provide critical data for host:microbiome interactions and translational therapeutic targets.
In obese adolescents, the severity of obesity should not influence the outcome of resting PFT. The amplitudes of the rest PFT should make it possible to predict the performance achieved while exercising on a cycloergometer. We wish to highlight the presence of a significant correlation, probably low, between some respiratory parameters at rest, and cardio-vascular parameters at the exercise.
The investigators propose a study to evaluate the success of a bicycle distribution program in increasing physical activity level, decreasing sedentary activity levels and positively affecting body-mass index (BMI) in participants aged 6 to 12 years old with overweight or obesity, who do not already own a bicycle, and are patients at the Children's Hospital Colorado Child Health Clinic (CHC), Lifestyle Medicine Clinic, or Rocky Mountain Youth Clinics. The investigators anticipate that the receipt of a bicycle will increase physical activity level, decrease sedentary activity time and decrease or stabilize patients' BMI. The investigators will answer this research question by distributing bicycles to 525 children and conducting follow up visits over the course of a year to measure the outcomes of interest.
Obesity is recognized as a pro-inflammatory condition associated with multiple chronic diseases, including asthma. The specific mechanisms linking asthma and obesity remain hypothetical. Our primary hypothesis is that inflammatory SNPs may regulate the degree of the inflammatory response, with obesity modifying the severity of the disease. In this instance, asthma that develops in the context of obesity demonstrates the potential deleterious relationship between a specific proinflammatory state (obesity) and the genetic regulators of inflammation (SNPs). Our secondary hypothesis proposes that short-term (12-weeks) weight loss by diet alone, but not exercise alone, will reduce lung specific inflammation and diminish the pro-inflammatory responses in female African American obese adolescents with asthma compared to a waiting list control group who after their initial 12 weeks then receive a combined 12-week diet plus exercise program (waiting list control/combined). A third exploratory hypothesis proposes that the frequency of identified SNPs will be significantly related to the amount of fat loss through diet, exercise or combined program and will further be mediated by specific airway and, pro-and-anti-inflammatory markers.These hypotheses will be tested using the following Specific Aims: 1. To determine the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms and SNP haplotypes in pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in female African American obese and non-obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents, 13-19 years or age. 2. To examine the effects of diet or exercise on lung specific inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide, [eNO]) and pro-and-anti-inflammatory responses in female African-American obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents compared to a waiting list control/ combined group. In addition we will examine the following Exploratory Aim: To determine the effects of the inflammatory SNPs in the modulation of several inflammatory markers and lung specific inflammation (eNO) in female African-American obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents before and after weight loss through diet, exercise or both.
This study evaluates the feasibility and preliminary effects of offering the Mealtime PREP intervention to low-income families with young children. All enrolled families will receive the Mealtime PREP intervention in the home to evaluate the effects on child nutrition.
A community nutrition trial among a diverse low-income population that tested the effect of parent-child cooking nutrition intervention on vegetable intake among 9-12 children.
Almost 50% of Native American and Hispanic children are overweight or obese by the 5th grade. Research has demonstrated that the 'obesity gap' facing minority students is largely due to summer weight gain. However, very few summer programs have been tested among these populations. To encourage summer physical activity, the CDC developed a program that partners with local businesses to provide children with a 'scorecard' of subsidized or free local activities. The program has not been tested among Hispanic or Native American children. This study aims to test the impact of the scorecard program on Body Mass Index percentile, physical activity, sedentary behavior, barriers to physical activity and self-efficacy.
In obese children, excess fat exerts an increased mechanical burden on the respiratory system, particularly during exercise. It is unclear whether this burden reduces respiratory function and exercise tolerance and increases severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in obese asthmatic children. The investigators propose that most of the respiratory effects in obese asthmatic children are the result of low lung volume breathing (i.e., reduced functional residual capacity). The first objective of this study is to investigate respiratory function, exercise tolerance, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in obese vs. nonobese asthmatic children. Guidelines from the American Thoracic Society strongly recommend interval warm-up exercise before planned exercise to reduce exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity. However, no empirical data on the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity are available in obese asthmatic children, where excess fat exerts such an unfavorable burden on the respiratory system, particularly during exercise. Thus, the second objective of this study is to investigate the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity in obese and nonobese asthmatic children. Our approach will be to investigate exercise tolerance, respiratory function, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity and the effects of (1) 8x30sec interval warm-up & (2) pretreatment with a bronchodilator compared with a no-treatment control on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity in 8-12 yr, prepubescent, obese and nonobese asthmatic children. [Aim 1]: To investigate respiratory function and exercise tolerance [Hypothesis]: Obesity in children with asthma will reduce respiratory function and exercise tolerance [Aim 2]: To investigate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. [Hypothesis]: Obesity in children with asthma will increase exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity as evidenced by a greater maximum % fall in forced expiratory volume in the first second after an exercise challenge test. [Aim 3]: To investigate the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity. [Hypothesis]: Interval warm-up exercise will reduce exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity after an exercise challenge test to a similar extent as bronchodilator and better than control, although to a greater extent in nonobese asthmatic children.