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Neonates delivered by scheduled Cesarean Section will be randomized to receive vaginal seeding (exposing the infant to Mother's vaginal flora) or sham. Infants will be followed for three years to examine health outcomes including microbiome development, immune development, metabolic outcomes, and any adverse events.
Myoinositol (MI) and D-chiro inositol (DCI) are isomeric forms of inositol that were found to have insulin-like properties, acting as second messengers in the insulin intracellular pathway; both of these molecules are involved in the increasing insulin sensitivity of different tissues to improve metabolic and ovulatory functions. Myoinositol is the predominant form that can be found in nature and food. Inositol has been mainly used as a supplement in treating several pathologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes (GDM). In the case of GDM, a condition defined as a glucose impairment first detected in pregnancy, a preventive role of inositol for GDM onset was recognized. In addition, inositol has been studied as a therapeutic option for the treatment of GDM and T2DM. The main effect of inositol is decreasing the level of insulin resistance. Consequently, a potential role of inositol as a treatment option could be hypothesized for other conditions typically characterized by insulin resistance like metabolic syndrome and obesity. Zinc also plays an important role in insulin action and carbohydrate metabolism. It may also have a protective role in the prevention of atherogenesis. Several human studies have demonstrated that Zinc supplementation reduces total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, in addition to increasing the HDL cholesterol levels. Studies have shown that diabetes is accompanied by hypozincemia and high levels of Zinc in urine. In addition Zinc is also an integral part of key anti-oxidant enzymes and Zinc deficiency impairs their synthesis, resulting in increased oxidative stress. A supplementation with Myo-Inositol and Zinc could represent a valid strategy in paediatric obesity in addiction to a standard approach. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the supplementation of Myo-inositol and Zinc in the treatment of paediatric obesity.
This study is investigating the impact of a skills training program in stimulus control of meals and snacks on zBMI. Participants will be randomized to a standard family-based obesity treatment intervention with education on child health or a standard family-based obesity treatment intervention with experiential learning about meal stimulus control strategies.
Obesity is a major, public health concern that affects at least 400 million individuals and is associated with severe disorders including diabetes and cancers. Worldwide, the prevalence of overweight and obesity combined in children, adolescents and youth, between 1980 and 2013, increased to 47.1%, with alarming data also in developing countries. Obesity is often caused by imbalance between excessive caloric intake and reduced physical activity. Recently, microbial changes in the human gut was proposed to be another possible cause of obesity and it was found that the gut microbes from fecal samples contained 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes. However, it is still poorly understood how the dynamics and composition of the intestinal microbiota are affected by diet or other lifestyle factors. Moreover it has been difficult to characterize the composition of the human gut microbiota due to large variations between individuals. The role of the digestive microbiota in the human body is still largely unknown, but the bacteria of the gut flora do contribute enzymes that are absent in humans for food digestion. Moreover, the link between obesity and the microbiota is likely to be more sophisticated than the simple phylum-level Bacteroidetes: Firmicutes ratio that was initially identified, and it is likely to involve a microbiota-diet interaction. Obese and lean subjects presented increased levels of different bacterial populations. It is hypothesized that the obese microbiome is set up to extract more calories from the daily intake when compared to the microbiome of lean counterparts. In addition, a caloric diet restriction impacted the composition of the gut microbiota in obese/overweight individuals and weight loss. In lean subjects there are Coriobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella, Clostridium Eubacterium, E. coli and Staphilococcus. By contrast, Bifidobacterium, Methanobrevibacter, Xylanibacter, Bacteroides characterize the composition of lean gut microbiota. For this reason, in a cohort of obese paediatric subjects with visceral adiposity, the aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of a supplementation with probiotic bifidobacteria with respect to a conventional treatment on weight loss and improvement of cardio-metabolic risk factors.
The primary aim is to determine the relative effectiveness in child BMI z-scores at 3, 6, and 12-months post baseline of iChoose+ versus Family Connections. Secondary aims are to determine (1) ongoing reach, fidelity, and implementation costs, (2) community capacity for implementation and sustainability, (3) relative impact on family eating/physical activity and parental weight, and (4) relative adherence and potential dose response relationships.
This study will evaluate the effects of a one week weight management summer camp on children's weight, quality of life, mood and feelings, self-esteem, weight management efficacy, enjoyment of physical activity, and body image.
The purpose of this research is to develop, apply, and evaluate a school-based intervention program in East Jerusalem schools, designed to increase knowledge and to improve the attitudes and healthy behavior of schoolchildren, their teachers and their mothers' with regard to healthy eating and physical activity habits. The study tested the hypothesis that the impact of the entire school intervention program on students' lifestyles is mediated by their teachers' engagement in health promotion and by their mothers' involvement in school activity.
Although there are numerous studies investigating the pharmacokinetic properties of intravenous acetaminophen in infants and children with normal weight, there are none in the obese pediatric patient . This study will investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acetaminophen (total Cl and Vd) in obese children and adolescents
The goal of this study is to further increase the impact of a validated and widely-used Eating Smart • Being Active EFNEP curriculum by teaching parents responsive feeding practices resulting in the development of healthier patterns of child eating behavior and food intake. Additionally, the effectiveness of two delivery strategies for adding feeding video-based content will be examined (in-person versus online lessons).
Background Childhood obesity has been related to an impaired cardiovascular structure and function. Aims of this study will be to evaluate early cardiovascular abnormalities in a large population of obese children and adolescents compared with a normal weight counterpart, to investigate the potential association with insulin resistance (IR), serum uric acid (sUA), metabolic syndrome (MetS), plasmatic markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and adipokines, to evaluate changes in cardiovascular dysfunction after 6 and 12 months of a behavioral treatment (isocaloric Mediterranean balanced diet plus daily aerobic physical activity). Subjects and methods This was a single-center case-control study. Eighty obese (OB) subjects (6-16 years) and 20 normal weight (NW) matched controls were consecutively recruited. In the whole population we will perform an anthropometric and a cardiovascular assessment. OB patients will also undergo an OGTT and biochemical evaluations. In the OB group, all these evaluations will be performed at baseline and after 6 (T6) and 12 months (T12) of diet plus aerobic training.