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In obese adolescents, the severity of obesity should not influence the outcome of resting PFT. The amplitudes of the rest PFT should make it possible to predict the performance achieved while exercising on a cycloergometer. We wish to highlight the presence of a significant correlation, probably low, between some respiratory parameters at rest, and cardio-vascular parameters at the exercise.
The investigators propose a study to evaluate the success of a bicycle distribution program in increasing physical activity level, decreasing sedentary activity levels and positively affecting body-mass index (BMI) in participants aged 6 to 12 years old with overweight or obesity, who do not already own a bicycle, and are patients at the Children's Hospital Colorado Child Health Clinic (CHC), Lifestyle Medicine Clinic, or Rocky Mountain Youth Clinics. The investigators anticipate that the receipt of a bicycle will increase physical activity level, decrease sedentary activity time and decrease or stabilize patients' BMI. The investigators will answer this research question by distributing bicycles to 525 children and conducting follow up visits over the course of a year to measure the outcomes of interest.
Obesity is recognized as a pro-inflammatory condition associated with multiple chronic diseases, including asthma. The specific mechanisms linking asthma and obesity remain hypothetical. Our primary hypothesis is that inflammatory SNPs may regulate the degree of the inflammatory response, with obesity modifying the severity of the disease. In this instance, asthma that develops in the context of obesity demonstrates the potential deleterious relationship between a specific proinflammatory state (obesity) and the genetic regulators of inflammation (SNPs). Our secondary hypothesis proposes that short-term (12-weeks) weight loss by diet alone, but not exercise alone, will reduce lung specific inflammation and diminish the pro-inflammatory responses in female African American obese adolescents with asthma compared to a waiting list control group who after their initial 12 weeks then receive a combined 12-week diet plus exercise program (waiting list control/combined). A third exploratory hypothesis proposes that the frequency of identified SNPs will be significantly related to the amount of fat loss through diet, exercise or combined program and will further be mediated by specific airway and, pro-and-anti-inflammatory markers.These hypotheses will be tested using the following Specific Aims: 1. To determine the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms and SNP haplotypes in pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in female African American obese and non-obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents, 13-19 years or age. 2. To examine the effects of diet or exercise on lung specific inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide, [eNO]) and pro-and-anti-inflammatory responses in female African-American obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents compared to a waiting list control/ combined group. In addition we will examine the following Exploratory Aim: To determine the effects of the inflammatory SNPs in the modulation of several inflammatory markers and lung specific inflammation (eNO) in female African-American obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents before and after weight loss through diet, exercise or both.
This study evaluates the feasibility and preliminary effects of offering the Mealtime PREP intervention to low-income families with young children. All enrolled families will receive the Mealtime PREP intervention in the home to evaluate the effects on child nutrition.
A community nutrition trial among a diverse low-income population that tested the effect of parent-child cooking nutrition intervention on vegetable intake among 9-12 children.
Almost 50% of Native American and Hispanic children are overweight or obese by the 5th grade. Research has demonstrated that the 'obesity gap' facing minority students is largely due to summer weight gain. However, very few summer programs have been tested among these populations. To encourage summer physical activity, the CDC developed a program that partners with local businesses to provide children with a 'scorecard' of subsidized or free local activities. The program has not been tested among Hispanic or Native American children. This study aims to test the impact of the scorecard program on Body Mass Index percentile, physical activity, sedentary behavior, barriers to physical activity and self-efficacy.
In obese children, excess fat exerts an increased mechanical burden on the respiratory system, particularly during exercise. It is unclear whether this burden reduces respiratory function and exercise tolerance and increases severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in obese asthmatic children. The investigators propose that most of the respiratory effects in obese asthmatic children are the result of low lung volume breathing (i.e., reduced functional residual capacity). The first objective of this study is to investigate respiratory function, exercise tolerance, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in obese vs. nonobese asthmatic children. Guidelines from the American Thoracic Society strongly recommend interval warm-up exercise before planned exercise to reduce exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity. However, no empirical data on the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity are available in obese asthmatic children, where excess fat exerts such an unfavorable burden on the respiratory system, particularly during exercise. Thus, the second objective of this study is to investigate the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity in obese and nonobese asthmatic children. Our approach will be to investigate exercise tolerance, respiratory function, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity and the effects of (1) 8x30sec interval warm-up & (2) pretreatment with a bronchodilator compared with a no-treatment control on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity in 8-12 yr, prepubescent, obese and nonobese asthmatic children. [Aim 1]: To investigate respiratory function and exercise tolerance [Hypothesis]: Obesity in children with asthma will reduce respiratory function and exercise tolerance [Aim 2]: To investigate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. [Hypothesis]: Obesity in children with asthma will increase exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity as evidenced by a greater maximum % fall in forced expiratory volume in the first second after an exercise challenge test. [Aim 3]: To investigate the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity. [Hypothesis]: Interval warm-up exercise will reduce exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity after an exercise challenge test to a similar extent as bronchodilator and better than control, although to a greater extent in nonobese asthmatic children.
Childhood obesity and metabolic risk are at record high levels in the US, and Latino children are at very high risk. This project will test an intervention called Fit 5 Kids, designed for Latino preschoolers to decrease their screen time in order to promote physical activity and healthy eating, and to prevent obesity. Ultimately, this line of research has the potential to provide an effective program to reduce risk of obesity for Latinos in the Head Start program and other preschool-based settings.
The study is being conducted to obtain adolescent girls' thoughts and opinions on relationship and communication styles are shown on television.
Recent studies have shown that the bacteria in the gut (gut microbiome) can affect adiposity levels and inflammation. In animal studies, changing these bacteria has been linked with decreased fat mass and inflammation as well as improved metabolism. Probiotics can be a safe method of altering the gut microbiome in humans and have shown promising results in adults with regards to changing adiposity and inflammatory markers. However, it may also be important to provide the right dietary milieu (i.e. high fruit and vegetable/low saturated fat diet) in order to see the benefits of probiotics on these physiologic markers. At this time, no one has offered probiotics in the context of the right dietary milieu and tested it in children. This pilot proposal is innovative because it will be the first to test how well probiotics work in the context of a diet high in fruits and vegetables to change the gut microbiome, decrease fat mass, and improve inflammatory markers in overweight/obese children. This protocol will allow one to better understand the effect of probiotics on these physiologic functions and determine acceptability and feasibility of taking daily probiotics.