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Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) include filling, emptying or post-voiding state alterations; producing symptomatology depending of the underline mechanism. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common underlying disease, which increases with age and significantly affects men over 50 years. There are currently no prevention or curative treatment guidelines, as their pathophysiological mechanism is not exactly known. Several factors have been implicated, such as hormones, aging, lifestyle or diet. BPH is associated with metabolic disorders, the basis of which is insulin resistance and its associated pathologies: diabetes, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Patients without these metabolic signs have a lower incidence of BPH and / or LUTS. Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with greater proliferation and a reduction of cellular apoptosis at the prostate level; leading to an increase in prostate volume or symptoms. Likewise, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance, both in favor of sympathetic (emptying symptoms) or parasympathetic (filling symptoms), influences LUTS. SNA activity can be measured non-invasively, repetitively and effectively by measuring the heart rate variability (HRV). Caloric restriction with optimal nutrition (CRON, hereinafter only CR) is the most physiologically adapted nutritional alternative to our ancestral needs and has been shown in humans to reduce insulin resistance and associated pathologies. It has also been observed that CR improves the balance of the SNA and allows to improve LUTS. Proliferation inhibition and prostatic apoptosis induction, mediated through CR, by insulin-IGF-1 axis reduction and mTOR metabolic pathways inhibition, are the central axis of this project. CR will be used to reduce insulin resistance, IGF expression and inhibition of the PI3K / AKT / mTOR pathway, to reduce prostate cell proliferation and promote prostatic tissue apoptosis; in this way it will be possible to reduce its volume and improve the symptomatology. Additionally, CR will allow us to evaluate the potential benefits it has on certain metabolic diseases (diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, etc.), anthropometric values (BMI, abdominal perimeter and skin folds) and autonomic nervous system functionality (HRV) .
Background and study aims: Surgical and non-surgical normalization of body weight with obesity leads to a significant improvement in health and regression of metabolic syndrome. But as the reduction in body weight with obesity changes the life expectancy remains not clear enough. The use of endoscopic staplers does not exclude the emergence of serious complications of surgery, for example, including bleeding and leakage in the stapler suture line. Therefore, the advantages of using a band in the bariatrics are justified from a security standpoint. Currently, the gastric bypass is increasingly performed in the version of the mini gastric bypass (MGB). Another name for the procedure: one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). The proposal to use for the staple-free (stepleless or steplerless) creation of a pouch (band-separated gastric bypass) with use for band a vascular prosthesis is justified, but it requires comparison of this method with a stapler variant. An important issue is comparing surgical and non-surgical weight loss with obesity and metabolic syndrome and comparing life expectancy with confirmation of changes in telomere length. This study compares loss of weight, changes in other health conditions that the patient may have (co-morbidities, such as diabetes), telomere length, quality of life, the number of complications and side effects, the degree of complexity of the surgical technique and operating costs of a new laparoscopic band-separated mini- gastric bypass (LBSMGB) procedure compared with the standard stapler (linear cutter) - separated mini-gastric bypass (LSSMGB). Additionally, surgical treatment will be compared with non-surgical treatment (hypocaloric diet therapy). Who can participate? Obese adult patients with a BMI of between 30 kg/m2 and 50 kg/m2. What does the study involve? Participants are randomly allocated to one of three groups. Those in the first (A) group undergo the laparoscopic band-separated mini-gastric bypass procedure. Those in the second (B) group undergo the linear cutter stapler-separated mini-gastric bypass procedure. In three (C) group including standard lifestyle intervention on weight and hypocaloric diet therapy. All patients are then followed up one month after surgery and again after 6 and, finally, 12 months after surgery where the changing body mass index, changes in co-morbidities, change telomere length and quality of life are assessed.
In the UK, around 1 in 16 men and 1 in 20 women will develop bowel cancer at some point in their lives. Most bowel cancers happen when a type of growth in the bowel called an adenoma eventually becomes cancerous. Cutting out adenomas reduces the risk of developing bowel cancer. Certain people are more likely to have adenomas than others, for example people who are overweight. People who are overweight are also more likely to develop liver disease by laying too much fat down in the liver. Studies in Asia have shown that people with fatty liver disease are more likely to have adenomas and these are more commonly found in the part of the bowel (right colon) furthest from the bottom end. Information on the link between obesity, fatty liver disease and adenomas is very limited, particularly in the Western population. The investigators will assess the link between body weight, fatty liver and adenomas in the UK population. 1430 patients will be invited; some through the bowel cancer screening programme and some with symptoms such as low blood count, bleeding or changed bowel habit. These patients will already have been referred for a camera test looking into the bowel, called a colonoscopy. Information including height, weight and some health questions will be taken. Blood samples will be taken. The investigators will compare the number of patients with adenomas who have liver disease or who are overweight with those who don't. This information will be used to develop a scoring system to predict risk of adenomas. This will help the investigators to decide if undertaking colonoscopies in these patients will identify those at increased risk of bowel cancer.
Despite exercise training decrease blood fasting glicaemy in 'average' terms, there is a wide inter-individual variability after exercise training explored mainly in adults but not in adults with prediabetes comorbidities. Thus, is yet unknown the effects and influence of the concurrent training (CT) eliciting responders (R) and non-responders (NR) cases (i.e., percentage of subjects who experienced a non-change/worsened response after training in some metabolic outcomes).
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), CVDs are the leading causes of death in the world. According to epidemiological data from the Ministry of Health, these diseases account for 29.4% of all deaths recorded in Brazil annually. Kefir is obtained by fermenting milk with kefir grains and has been recommended as a therapeutic form for the treatment of various clinical conditions. The hypothesis of the present study is that the daily intake of fermented beverages with kefir grains may reduce the risk factors associated with MS, thus reducing the incidence of CVD. A clinical trial was conducted with 48 volunteers, who presented at least three criteria for the diagnosis of MS. The subjects were divided into two groups that received for eleven weeks fermented dairy drink with kefir (KG) grains or homemade curd (CG). Weight and height measurements were taken to calculate BMI. The body composition evaluation was performed by determining the percentage of body fat and waist circumference (WC). The measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting glycemia, glycated hemoglobin (HA1c), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (Tg), C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Creatinophosphokinase (CPK), γ-Glutamyl Transferase (γ-GT), Urea Nitrogen, Urea and Creatinine. The level of non-HDL cholesterol (n-HDL) was determined by calculation. The Framingham score was used to assess the risk of developing cardiovascular events over the next ten years. Eleven weeks into the experiment, all measurements of body evaluation, SBP and DBP and biochemical analysis of blood were reevaluated.
Switching patients with HIV infection from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to a tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) based drug regimen can provide many safety benefits including preserving bone mineral density and kidney function. This study will examine metabolic changes that patients may encounter due to the switch in medication regimens and the maintenance of viral suppression.
Traditional medical treatments are often based on research done exclusively in males, and recent research efforts in the physiology community have highlighted critical sex differences in disease presentation and progression. For example, the relative risk of fatal heart disease is 50% greater in obese, diabetic women as compared to their male counterparts, and women appear to respond differently to lifestyle interventions such as exercise compared with men. Chronic passive heat exposure (hot tub use) provides alternative or supplemental therapeutic potential for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health in obese women. In addition, passive heat exposure may offer specific cellular protection from stresses like a lack of blood flow (ischemia), which is the primary cause of fatal coronary heart disease. This study is investigating the possible cardiovascular and metabolic health benefits of chronic passive heat exposure, and whether regular hot tub use (3-4 days per week for 8-10 weeks) may reduce obese womens' cardiometabolic risk. The investigators are examining cardiovascular health through blood pressure, blood vessel stiffness, sympathetic ('fight or flight') activity, and responsiveness to stresses like increased or decreased blood flow. The investigators are also examining metabolic health through an oral glucose tolerance test and a subcutaneous fat biopsy. The goal of this research is to develop a therapy targeted toward the specific health needs and complications of obese women, in an effort to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health and provide therapeutic alternatives in this high-risk population.
Obesity is recognized as a pro-inflammatory condition associated with multiple chronic diseases, including asthma. The specific mechanisms linking asthma and obesity remain hypothetical. Our primary hypothesis is that inflammatory SNPs may regulate the degree of the inflammatory response, with obesity modifying the severity of the disease. In this instance, asthma that develops in the context of obesity demonstrates the potential deleterious relationship between a specific proinflammatory state (obesity) and the genetic regulators of inflammation (SNPs). Our secondary hypothesis proposes that short-term (12-weeks) weight loss by diet alone, but not exercise alone, will reduce lung specific inflammation and diminish the pro-inflammatory responses in female African American obese adolescents with asthma compared to a waiting list control group who after their initial 12 weeks then receive a combined 12-week diet plus exercise program (waiting list control/combined). A third exploratory hypothesis proposes that the frequency of identified SNPs will be significantly related to the amount of fat loss through diet, exercise or combined program and will further be mediated by specific airway and, pro-and-anti-inflammatory markers.These hypotheses will be tested using the following Specific Aims: 1. To determine the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms and SNP haplotypes in pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in female African American obese and non-obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents, 13-19 years or age. 2. To examine the effects of diet or exercise on lung specific inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide, [eNO]) and pro-and-anti-inflammatory responses in female African-American obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents compared to a waiting list control/ combined group. In addition we will examine the following Exploratory Aim: To determine the effects of the inflammatory SNPs in the modulation of several inflammatory markers and lung specific inflammation (eNO) in female African-American obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents before and after weight loss through diet, exercise or both.
Testing four different strategies for weight loss intervention and revealing possible changes in composition of gut microbiota, in order to provide more insight in the effect of dietary changes and weight loss treatments on gut microbiome in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The four strategies are: - no intervention, solely dietary advice as provided for the entire study population - metformin tablets - myo-inositol and folic acid - liraglutide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist Primary outcome will be weight loss. Secondary outcomes are longitudinal changes in clinical features associated with PCOS and metabolic syndrome, longitudinal changes in gut microbiome with interventions. Subjects will be treated during 16 weeks and follow-up will take 16 weeks after stop of treatment.
Amla has demonstrated promising effects in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin secretion, among others. The above mentioned findings show that Amla has an excellent potential for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.