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This randomised controlled study will investigate the effectiveness of isokinetic strengthening on the upper extremity functionality and strength in post-stroke hemiplegic patients.
This research study is to find out if brain stimulation at different dosage level combined with an efficacy-proven rehabilitation therapy can improve arm function. The stimulation technique is called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The treatment uses direct currents to stimulate specific parts of the brain affected by stroke. The adjunctive rehabilitation therapy is called "modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy" (mCIMT). During this therapy the subject will wear a mitt on the hand of the arm that was not affected by a stroke and force to use the weak arm. The study will test 3 different doses of brain stimulation in combination with mCIMT to find out the most promising one.
People with one arm that does not function well due to a stroke, head injury, or cerebral palsy, and a fully functional other arm, will be randomly assigned to receive one of the two interventions first, followed by the other intervention. The two interventions include a task-based intervention and a virtual reality intervention that provides a reflected image of the involved arm. The task-based intervention will consist of setting up activities of interest to be done using the involved arm and structuring practice and meaningful feedback to assist learning. The virtual reality intervention will consist of the person wearing the virtual reality device and practicing virtual tasks using the intact arm while seeing the involved arm. Intervention sessions will last approximately 30 minutes and will be held 3 times/week for 3 weeks each for a total of 9 sessions for each intervention. Testing of the involved arm's function will be done before the interventions, after receiving 9 sessions of each intervention, and one month after completing the second intervention received.
Specific clinical tools and treatment variables have a key role on the results to be obtained. Therefore, there is a need for well-planned studies on the effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on stroke patients. Although NMES is frequently used in patients with stroke, scientific evidence regarding back extensor muscle stimulation, functional capacity, balance and mobility efficiency in this patient group is not sufficient. This study was planned to compare controlled individuals with neurological rehabilitation. According to the definition of World Health Organization (WHO) stroke; It is a rapidly developing clinical condition due to local or general impairment of brain functions, without apparent cause other than vascular causes. In the world, the loss of disability and labor force is known as the first and the second cause of deaths. Post-stroke intensive care and rehabilitation processes vary between countries. For example, in Australia, $ 2.14 billion is spent each year for the treatment of stroke-diagnosed individuals, while US $ 65 million is spent annually. For these reasons, it is very important to choose low-cost, effective and evidence-based physiotherapy approaches for people with stroke. Hemiparesis, which is characterized by a loss of power on one side of the body, is the most common neurological loss after stroke. Patients with hemiparetic stroke often have impaired balance, mobility and functional capacity. This results in a high economic burden and social problem in this person. Among the functional problems after stroke; impaired balance, abnormal walking pattern with abnormal asymmetry, abnormal body and spinal movement can be shown. The most important problem is the loss of mobility; bed activities include sitting and standing. The most important goal of stroke rehabilitation is the recovery of mobility and balance. Changes in walking pattern and balance abilities occur due to motor control loss, spasticity, muscle weakness, joint motion deficit, abnormal movement patterns and sensory dysfunction. In addition to neurophysiological treatment techniques such as Bobath, conventional exercise programs, Brunnstrom and proprioceptive neuromuscular parasilication, with the aim of improving the quality of movement and maintaining the balance in rehabilitation of stroke-diagnosed patients, electrical stimulation is also used.Although the importance of back extensor muscle strength is documented in the literature, it is observed that studies focusing on back extensor muscle strength in limb rehabilitation are limited. Control disorders in the posterior extensor muscles after stroke are found to be significantly associated with balance, gait and upper extremity dysfunctions. Based on this idea, our study was planned to examine the effect of NMEs application on functional capacity, balance and mobility in stroke individuals.
Background and purpose: Spasticity, a common impairment after stroke, has a profound negative impact on patients' functional activities. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection is effective in reducing spasticity. However, the optimal training program post BoNT-A injection remains uncertain. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is the most investigated intervention with promising effects for improving upper extremity (UE) function and increasing use frequency of the affected limb in ADL. The CIMT has strict inclusion criteria, which might not be suitable for a majority of patients who have moderate to severe spasticity. Therefore the aims of this study are to determine the clinical and kinematic benefits and compare the effect of Robotic mCIMT with conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training in patient with spastic hemiplegia post BoNT-A injection. Methods: Investigators conducted a power analysis based on the findings of previous research. Investigators took Wolf Motor Function Test -Functional Ability Scale into account, with an overall effect size of 0.79, a power set at 0.80, and a two-sided type I error of 0.05. The sample size calculation resulted in 27 participants per group, allowing for a 20% dropout rate, total 64 patients will be recruited. Those patients will receive BoNT-A injection and then be randomly assigned to either Robotic mCIMT group (1 hour unilateral robotic therapy, followed by 30 minutes of functional practice of affected UE using shaping technique, 3/week for 8 weeks and restraint of the unaffected limb at home for 2 hrs per day ) or control group (conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training 1.5 hours per session, 3/week for 8 weeks and home exercise 2 hrs per day). Body function and structures outcome measures, such as Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Actigraph ; activity and participation measures, such as Wolf Motor Function Test, Motor Activity Log, will be assessed before, after intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Investigators will also monitor the kinematic data of InMotion 3.0 robot across the whole course of Robotic mCIMT to see how the Robotic mCIMT following BoNT-A injection impacts motor learning process of the participants. Analysis: To evaluate the treatment effects of the outcome measures, 2 groups (Robotic mCIMT or control) * 3 times (before intervention, after intervention, and 3 months after intervention) repeated-measure ANOVA will be used. Conclusion: This study will be the first study to compare the Robotic mCIMT and conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training post BoNT-A injection. The results will provide clinicians with the appropriate program post BoNT-A injection to improve upper limb functions for patients with hemiplegic spastic stroke.
Adequate ankle motion for normal gait ranges from 10° to 15° of dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF-PROM) to allow the tibia to move over the talus. However, limited ankle mobility is a common impairment in patients with stroke whose DF-PROM has been shown to be approximately half of that in healthy subjects. As a result, these patients have impaired dynamic balance in standing or gait. Mulligan first proposed mobilization with movement (MWM) as a joint mobilization technique. Talocrural MWM to facilitate DF-ROM is performed by applying a posteroanterior tibia glide over a fixed talus while the patient actively moves into a dorsiflexed position while standing. Talocrural MWM has been applied to chronic ankle instability and has been proven effective in improving DF-PROM and standing balance. Subtalar MWM to facilitate DF-ROM is performed by bringing foot to dorsiflexion-abduction-eversion by flexing patient' knee. The effects of talocrural and subtalar MWM have not been investigated in patients with stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of talocrural and subtalar MWM on foot posture, range of motion, gait, and balance in stroke patients with limited ankle mobility.
This study in an observational, prospective and longitudinal study. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX) injections into the elbow flexors on the reduction of spastic co-contractions (spastic co-contraction index, SCCI) during an active elbow extension in chronic post-stroke patients.TBA injections are performed as part of routine care
This is a feasibility study to alter the Microsoft Kinect software to be used as a rehabilitation tool. The prototype used is still in the early developing stage. The purpose of this research study is to develop a prototype of altered Microsoft Kinect Software and determine its use in improving the function of the study subjects' weaker extremities. The altered software will allow a viewing of the mirror image of the involved limb as it is moved. However, the image that is viewed will reflect normal movement even if the limb cannot move normally. By viewing normal movement of the weaker limbs the "mirror neuron" network in the brain will become activated and will ultimately improve the function of the weaker side.
This study evaluates the effects of respiratory exercises on respiratory function test parameters and ultrasonographic diaphragmatic measurements. Half of the hemiplegic patients will receive respiratory and neurophysiological exercises, while other half will receive only neurophysiological exercises.
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability and has been described as a worldwide epidemic (1). Stroke survivors are affected by impairments and limitations of cognitive, language, perceptual, sensory, and motor functions. After a stroke, patients can improve spontaneously within the first 3 months (2) and then more slowly in the following year. The first day, decreased oedema and partial reperfusion of the ischemic penumbra may possibly explain these phenomena, but the improvement of neurological deficit in the following weeks suggests plasticity phenomena and brain cortical reorganization (3). While most recovery is thought to be made in the first few weeks after stroke, patients may make improvements on functional tasks many months after having a stroke (4). Restoring arm and hand skill after a stroke remains challenging, even though stroke rehabilitation programs have proven partial efficacy Repetitive task training has been shown to be effective in some aspects of rehabilitation, such as improving walking distance and speed and improving upper limb function (5). In this project, the investigators will use "Gloreha ARIA" (7) a new sensor-based therapy device designed for motor recovery of impaired upper limb Gloreha Aria offers specific programs that help patients to move arm, wrist and fingers. Therapists can customize therapy by focusing on a specific motor task.