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SwissChronoFood - Study of eating patterns with a smartphone app and the metabolic effects of time restricted feeding in metabolic syndrome The purpose of this study is to assess eating patterns among teenagers and adults with a new method, going beyond the pen-and-paper food diaries, and to investigate whether time restricted feeding leads to weight loss, improvement in lipid and glucose metabolism in individuals with metabolic syndrome
Overweight/obese Chinese and prediabetes will be recruited and divided into three age-matched groups including high intensity exercise, moderate intensity exercise, and non-exercise groups. The exercise program will consist of three sessions per week over the course of 12 weeks, under the supervision of our in-house exercise specialists and physiologists. The effects of exercise on glucose and lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and adiposity will be evaluated.
This study will examine the effects of almonds consumed by adults with different body fat distributions on indices of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
the results from animal studies and preliminary human studies show that carnitine availability and acetylcarnitine concentrations are low in insulin resistant states such as with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, in humans, carnitine supplementation is sometimes beneficial, but not in everyone. We hypothesize that this variability in response is due to differences between individuals in the amount of carnitine in the muscle i.e. only subjects with a low initial carnitine status will benefit from supplementation. The state of the art non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy method allows us to identify patients with low vs high muscle acetylcarnitine status. Here we aim to - for the first time - make the translational step to humans and test the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients with initially low carnitine status enhances metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than in subjects with an initially high carnitine status.
Costa ES, Izar MC, Fonseca FAH, França C, Tria H. The benefits of green banana biomass consumption in patients with diabetes mellitus. Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2015. According to the Guidelines of the Brazilian Society of Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders associated with microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, resulting in a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Currently, it is estimated that the world population with diabetes is 382 million people and it is expected to reach 471 million in 2035. About 80% of individuals with diabetes live in developing countries where the epidemic has greater intensity. In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and UK Prospective Diabetes Study demonstrated that intensive glycemic control (HbA1c ~ 7.0%) reduces chronic microvascular complications. The resistant starch (RS) is defined as starch and products of its hydrolysis are not absorbed in the small intestine. The green banana presents significant levels of RS, and it is considered a source for the intake of this substance. These foods have physiological functions in the intestinal regulation in glycemic control and delayed gastric emptying. To our knowledge, there are no long-term studies with DM to prove the benefits of resistant starch use. The objective of this study is to assess the benefits of green banana biomass consumption by patients with Pre DM and DM. Considering the possibility of improving glucose, lipid profile, increasing the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, adiponectin, and reduction in inflammatory markers IL-6, PCR.
Recently, various sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Empagliflozin is a preparation of this class of substances. SGLT2 inhibitors also lead to a reduction in body weight in addition to their blood glucose lowering effect. The basis for this is probably the calorie loss by the increased glucose excretion over the urine. However, this weight-reducing effect is lost after a few weeks of treatment and the body weight subsequently stabilizes at a lower level than before. However, patients continue to lose energy via the urine. Hence, the weight stabilization could be due to an increased energy intake as a possible consequence of a changed brain setpoint for the body weight. As the main weight loss is achieved during the first 6-8 weeks of treatment, the investigators assume that the underlying central nervous mechanisms will be present after this time. Furthermore, clinical-experimental observations show that treatment with empagliflozin promotes endogenous glucose production in the liver. This presumably compensatory mechanism also occurs after only a few weeks of treatment. The common mechanism, which could be based both on energy intake and on the endogenous glucose production effect, is still unclear. The investigators suspect that regulatory circuits in the brain contribute to these observed effects. In fact, several studies in animals as well as initial clinical studies in humans show that the brain is involved in eating behavior and peripheral metabolism. In particular, effects of the hormone insulin modulate the dietary intake via the brain, thereby affecting human body weight. Many of the experiments on the insulin sensitivity of the human brain used a specific approach to the selective delivery of insulin into the brain: the application of insulin as a nasal spray. Although this application route has no therapeutic value, this technique allows the administration of insulin to the central nervous system with little effect on the circulating insulin levels. By combining nasal insulin administration with functional MRI, regional insulin sensitivity of the brain can be quantified. The investigators recently found that the insulin action of the brain (stimulated by nasal insulin) regulates both endogenous glucose production and peripheral glucose uptake during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamps. The signals from the brain seem to reach the periphery via the autonomic nervous system in order to modulate metabolic processes. A central brain area in this regard is the hypothalamus. This brain region receives afferents over various systems such as the autonomic nervous system and various endocrine systems (including insulin). The investigators recently characterized the hypothalamus as an insulin-sensitive brain area in humans. The hypothalamus is the key area for homeostatic control throughout the body. Since the dietary intake and the endogenous glucose production are modulated by a hypothalamic insulin effect in humans, we suspect that the observed effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on both processes could be due to altered insulin activity in the brain. Since the SGLT2 inhibition by empagliflozin modulates the autonomic nervous system in the kidneys, signals from the kidney may be transmitted to the brain via the autonomic nervous system, thereby changing specific setpoints, including e.g. insulin sensitivity of the brain. In order to test this hypothesis, a precise phenotyping of prediabetic volunteers with regard to regional brain insulin sensitivity as well as the brain effect on metabolism before and after 8 weeks of treatment with empagliflozin compared to placebo is planned.
Bariatric surgery has been proven to be an effective treatment of type 2 diabetes and it has highlighted to role of the small intestine in glucose homeostasis. Improvement of glucose homeostasis occurs just a few days after the bariatric surgery, where parts of the small intestine is bypassed, has been performed. Furthermore, conditioned medium from the duodenum and the jejunum from both diabetic rodents and humans are able to induce insulin resistance in normal mice and in myocytes. Hence the hypothesis is that the small intestine secretes factors that are able to induce insulin resistance. This project aims to study how orally ingested glucose is able to induce insulin resistance and if this response differs in patients with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To address this question glucose homeostasis will be studied by comparing whole body glucose uptake during a progressively increased oral glucose load with a graded glucose infusion where the blood glucose levels will be kept in the same range as during the oral glucose load in patients with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous studied have shown that different metabolites and bile acids could be involved the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Hence, it is possible that the gut regulates metabolites that could be involved in small intestine-induced insulin resistance described above. The aim of this research is to study metabolomics in plasma collected during the oral glucose tolerance test with increasing load of glucose and the graded glucose infusion where plasma glucose level will be held in the same levels as during the oral glucose tolerance test and study the differences in patients with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The expected results in this study will demonstrate that the gut plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and that this system is dysregulated in type 2 diabetes. More importantly, novel factors derived or regulated from the gut that regulate insulin resistance and glucose tolerance will be identified which could be possible targets for future antidiabetic therapies.
The Personalized Nutrition Project for Prediabetes (PNP3) study will investigate whether personalized diet intervention will improve postprandial blood glucose levels and other metabolic health factors in individuals with prediabetes as compared with the standard low-fat diet.
Background: A significant proportion of pre-diabetics, show macro and micro vascular complications associated with hyperglycaemia. Although many trials have demonstrated the efficacy of lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions in diabetes prevention, no trial has evaluated the extent to which mid- and long-term complications can be prevented by early interventions on hyperglycaemia. Aims: To assess the long-term effects on multiple complications of hyperglycaemia of early intensive management of hyperglycaemia with linagliptin, metformin or their combination added to lifestyle intervention (LSI) (diet and physical activity), compared with LSI alone in adults with non-diabetic intermediate hyperglycaemia (IFG, IGT or both). Study Design: Investigator initiated (non-commercial), long-term, multi-centre, randomised, partially double blinded, placebo controlled, phase-IIIb clinical trial with prospective blinded outcome evaluation. Participants will be randomised to four parallel arms: 1) LSI + 2 placebo tablets/day; 2) LSI + 2 Metformin tablets of 850 mg/day; 3) LSI + 1 Linagliptin tablets of 5 mg/day and 1 placebo; 4) LSI + 2 tablets of a fixed-dose combination of Linagliptin 2.5mg and Metformin 850 /day. Active intervention will last for at least 2 years. Setting and population: Males and Females with pre-diabetes (IFG, IGT or both) aged 45 to 74 years selected from primary care screening programs in 14 clinical centres from 10 countries: Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Poland, Serbia, Spain and Turkey and . (N=1000) Main Outcomes: The primary endpoint is a combined continous variable: "the microvascular complication índex" (MCI) composed by a linear combination of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Scale (ETDRS) score (based on retinograms), the level of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, and a measure of distal small fibre neuropathy (sudomotor test by SUDOSCAN), measured during baseline visit and at 24th and 48th month visits after randomisation. In addition, serological biomarkers of inflammation, vascular damage, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin secretion, measures of quality of life, sleep quality, neuropsychological evaluation and endothelial function will be also evaluated in a subset of participants.
First, it will be evaluated whether supplementation of eriocitrin reduces hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, significantly reducing the risk of diabetes. The effects of eriocitrin on the lipid profile, inflammatory, endothelial, hepatic and renal biomarkers will also be evaluated. It is expected that metabolic parameters that constitute risk factors for diabetes and associated chronic diseases are expected to be improved by supplementation with eriocitrin