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The investigators aim to determine the effect of the correction of vitamin D in vitamin D deficient patients (<15ng/ml) in oxidative stress and insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular risk and increased prevalence of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction.
Determine the effects of reducing whole-body iron stores in overweight/obese subjects (via one-time blood donation) on adipose tissue iron content, factors regulating iron homeostasis and lipolytic rate in adipose tissue, as well as measures of adipose tissue and whole-body insulin resistance. After a screening visit to determine eligibility, subjects will undergo a battery of tests for the determination of primary outcome measures at baseline. They will then donate 1 unit (~500 mL) of blood (at a local blood donation center) and return for a follow-up testing 4 weeks after blood donation. During the 4-week period between study trials, subjects will be required to maintain a stable body mass and not alter their dietary or physical activity habits.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is an abnormal metabolic state following glucose metabolic steady state but prior to diabetes. IGT is an important stage during the progression of diabetes, with an underlying mechanism of insulin resistance and pancreatic β cell dysfunction. IGT is one of the diseases that shows significant beneficial response to acupuncture treatment. Original findings from the investigators'laboratory show that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) which is innervated by vagus nerve, would enhance the activity of pancreatic β cells, promote the secretion of insulin, upregulate the expression of insulin receptors in central as well as peripheral tissues, thus to improve glycometabolism. In this study, the investigators would further illuminate the mechanism of taVNS at "yidan-pi" auricular acupoints on the regulation of glucose metabolism, its improvement of the IGT state in rat model, as well as its regulation effect on insulin receptor expression and insulin resistance, and systematically illustrate the clinical effective of this treatment on IGT, with emphasize on its influence on the concentrations of glucose and HbA1c, and thus provide an effective proposal for clinical acupuncture.
The aim of this 2-phase, randomized clinical trial will be to examine the effects of two behavioral weight loss interventions on weight loss. This study will be conducted in 200 overweight or obese pre-diabetic and early-stage diabetic individuals recruited from community-based settings. Phase 1 will include 6-months of active intervention. Phase 2 will consist of 6-months of maintenance and observation. Measurements will occur at screening, baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Participants will be randomized with equal allocation to 2 groups: (1) a standardized behavioral weight loss intervention with a one-size-fits-all regimen that includes counseling about restriction of calories and calories from fat, and physical activity, delivered using mHealth technology, or (2) all of the elements of mHealth, plus personalized dietary recommendations to minimize glycemic response to meals. Participants will be required to attend 6 separate visits over both phases of the study.
Physical activity is a first line treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), however, the vast majority of patients with T2D do not achieve satisfying glycemic control with physical activity alone, which is why pharmacological treatment with metformin is most often initiated. It is known that metformin and exercise both activates 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle and liver, and the activation of AMPK results in many different metabolic effects, including improvements in glycemic control. Because of this similarity in mechanism of action, an interaction between metformin and exercise is plausible, but knowledge in the area is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the effects of acute physical activity with and without concomitant metformin treatment, in order to investigate whether an interaction between the two occur. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance will be randomized (1:1) to metformin/placebo treatment in a double-blinded way. Following a treatment run-in period of 17 days, two experimental days (one with acute exercise and one without acute exercise), separated by one week, will be performed in each subject. This registration concerns a sub-study of another study which has previously been registrered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Unique Protocol ID: H-17012307). The specific outcomes in this registration have not previously been registered.
Women with PCOS are more prone to obesity which exacerbates insulin resistance, the abdominal fat disposition and metabolic risk of these patients. With development of obesity these women have high conversion rate from normal glucose tolerance to impaired glucose tolerance and in turn to type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is involved in body weight maintenance. Beside energy balance it is also involved in glucose homeostasis. Functional deficit in GLP-1 facilitates obesity. We investigated the link between the concentration of incretin hormones and glucose homeostasis, metabolic complications and the distribution of body composition in obese women with PCOS.
Physical activity is a first line treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), however, the vast majority of patients with T2D do not achieve satisfying glycemic control with physical activity alone, which is why pharmacological treatment with metformin is most often initiated. It is known that metformin and exercise both activates 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle and liver, and the activation of AMPK results in many different metabolic effects, including improvements in glycemic control. Because of this similarity in mechanism of action, an interaction between metformin and exercise is plausible, but knowledge in the area is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the effects of training with and without concomitant metformin treatment, in order to investigate whether an interaction between the two occur. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance will all undergo 12 weeks of training but will be randomized (1:1) to concomitant metformin/placebo treatment in a double-blinded way. Experimental days will be performed before randomisation (before initiation of metformin/placebo treatment), before initiation of the training period and after the training period.
Sweetch is a personalized mobile-health platform coaching system (mobile phone app) designed to promote adherence to physical activity guidelines for people with prediabetes.
This experiment consists on a 20-day reduction in daily step in free-living active individuals to induce physical inactivity. This will be used to test the efficacy of the anti-oxidant cocktail we aim to test as a new countermeasure in 2016 during the 60-d bed rest planed by ESA/CNES. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the cocktail of natural antioxidants XXS-2A comprising vitamin E and coupled with omega-3 helps to prevent and / or reduce the glucose intolerance and improve oxidative defenses induced by 20 days of physical inactivity through daily step reduction Although physical inactivity is reported to affect glucose tolerance within days of inactivity, we selected a period of 20 days for the effect of the cocktail to take place and assess secondary molecular mechanisms. The effect of this short period of inactivity on metabolism will moreover be boosted during the last 10 days by taking fructose, a sugar found in abundance in fruits, honey and juices, which is known to quickly trigger metabolic deregulation.
The goal of this randomized controlled trial is to determine the efficacy of a digital diabetes prevention program for improving weight, glucose control, and secondary risk factors among people with prediabetes compared to an enhanced standard care plus wait-list control. Exploratory assessments of implementation facilitators and barriers will also be completed to determine strategies for integrating external diabetes-prevention interventions within healthcare settings.