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This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of increased protein ingestion, particularly when coupled with a low glycaemic index (GI) to reduce biomarkers related to high risk of diabetes.
The goal of this pilot and feasibility study is to investigate the effects of a short course of metformin therapy on a surrogate marker of cellular senescence and autophagy among adult patients with prediabetes. The overall hypothesis is that metformin will have beneficial effects on longevity and quality of life by inducing autophagy downstream of activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibiting mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) through potential effects of reduced inflammation, reduced degeneration of muscle and tendon tissue, antineoplastic effects, reduced obesity and hyperglycemia, preserved cardiovascular functions, and/or the prevention of neurodegeneration (such as age-associated dementia). This pilot study will address the following aim: Demonstrate that metformin therapy will increase cellular autophagy as an inverse correlate of aging as measured by increases in Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) scores. Hypothesis 1: In addition to beneficial effects on glycemia, body weight, and body composition, metformin therapy exerts beneficial effects on surrogate measures of autophagy and aging. Primary outcome: Increased levels of LC3 in leukocytes.
It is well known that the Type 2 diabetes and vascular disease are preceded by over ten years by metabolic dysfunction and anatomic changes that can be quantified. In order to develop effective preventive strategies and reduce the cost burden to the health care system, recognition of the earliest pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes and vascular disease is clinically relevant. The interval retrospective evaluation of data from patient records, reflect the effectiveness of the various treatments implemented in clinical practice. Prevalence of "prediabetes" among American adults is estimated to be ~84 million, or one out of three Americans. Over a 5-7 year period approximately one third of these prediabetic individuals will progress to type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is a heterogenous group comprised of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and increased A1c (5.7-6.4%). Although different pathophysiologies are present in individuals with IFG and IGT, their conversion rate to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is similar. Insulin resistance is a common causal feature of many of the pathophysiologic mechanisms linking macrovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Because hyperglycemia is the major factor responsible for the development of microvascular complications, it logically follows that prevention of progression of prediabetes to overt diabetes should retard/prevent the development of the microvascular complications. From the measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, and c-peptide levels during the oral glucose tolerance test, one can derive measures of the two core defects responsible for the development of T2DM, i.e. insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction as well as the degree of dysglycemia. By combining a standard medical evaluation with the evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers, patients at intermediate risk of vascular disease can be identified. In these patients, carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaque evaluation is offered to attempt to clarify risk. The hypothesis of this observational study is that the characterization of the physiology and anatomy of patients at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease can stratify risk of developing disease and direct treatment strategies tailored to the identified physiologic defect, leading to improvements in the delay or prevention of disease.
To compare the use supplementation based on green banana flour versus placebo in the insulin sensitivity on individuals who have prediabetes.
Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in adverse soft tissue body composition changes and an extremely sedentary lifestyle. These abrupt changes often lead to a high prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases, such as impaired glucose tolerance/diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, conditions which predispose those with SCI to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease compared to the general population. Due to paralysis and wheel chair dependence, maintaining an adequate level of physical activity to counteract these deleterious metabolic changes presents a unique obstacle because conventional first line interventions are lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet and exercise), which may be difficult to achieve. Recently, a new medication has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to improve glycemic control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and it has also been investigated as an off-label treatment to induce weight loss. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists are a class of drugs designed to mimic the endogenous incretin hormones released from the gut in a glucose dependent manner following a meal. The mechanisms of action for this drug class of medications include stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon release, slowed gastric emptying, and reduction of postprandial glucose excursions following food intake. In addition to improved glycemic control, this class of medications also shows promise for its non-glycemic action of facilitating weight loss. The method of delivery of the GLP-1's is by self-administered injections once daily or once weekly, depending on the severity of the clinical case and therapeutic targets for a specific patient.
The aim of the study is to describe the glycemic, insulinemic and appetitive responses to liquid and solid foods where either soluble fiber or maltodextrin are used as the carbohydrate substrate.
This study seeks to understand how a mother's emotional state in pregnancy influences her biological response to food intake.
The intent of this study is to examine the extent to which daily incorporation of egg into a diet improves glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and body composition in overweight and obese adults with pre- and type II-diabetes. The hypothesis of this study is that the daily incorporation of one large egg into a diet for 12 weeks will exert positive effects on factors associated with glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults with pre- and type II-diabetes through improvements in body weight, body composition, and lipid metabolism.
Type 2 diabetes results from a combination of peripheral insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction, and manifests as fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. In Singapore, despite the relatively low prevalence of overweight and obesity, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is disproportionately high and is expected to double in the near future. This indicates that insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction are widely prevalent even among individuals who are not overweight or obese. Still, weight loss induced by a variety of ways (calorie restriction, exercise, surgery, etc.) is considered the cornerstone of diabetes treatment. This underscores the importance of negative energy balance in improving metabolic function. In fact, negative energy balance induced by calorie restriction can improve metabolic function acutely, i.e. within 1-2 days and before any weight loss occurs. Likewise, negative energy balance induced by a single session of aerobic exercise improves metabolic function over the next few days. However, the magnitude of negative energy balance that needs to be achieved in order to improve metabolic function, as well as possible dose-response relationships, are not known. Furthermore, the comparative efficacy of calorie restriction vs. exercise in improving metabolic function has never been directly assessed. Accordingly, a better understanding of the effects of acute negative energy balance induced by calorie restriction or aerobic exercise on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function will have important implications for public health, by facilitating the design of effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) interventions to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes. To test these hypotheses, whole-body insulin sensitivity, the acute insulin response to glucose, and the disposition index (i.e. beta-cell function), will be determined the morning after a single day of progressively increasing negative energy balance (equivalent to 20% or 40% of total daily energy needs for weight maintenance) induced by calorie restriction or aerobic exercise. Results from this project are expected to result in the better understanding of the effects of negative energy balance induced by diet and exercise on metabolic function. Therefore, this project may help in the design of effective lifestyle intervention programs for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Bloating, gas, pain and diarrhea are common complaints. Routine investigations are negative; these patients are labeled as IBS. In these patients, whether testing for carbohydrate malabsorption or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is useful is unclear. We aim to assess the prevalence of SIBO, fructose and lactose intolerance, the usefulness of breath tests, and predictive value of pre-test symptoms.