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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a government-led typhoid conjugate vaccine introduction program on typhoid disease burden in Navi Mumbai, India.
This is an open-label Phase IIIb study of dabrafenib in combination with trametinib in the adjuvant treatment of melanoma after complete resection to evaluate the impact on pyrexia related outcomes of an adapted pyrexia AE-management algorithm, as well as safety, efficacy and health-related outcomes. ' Approximately 600 subjects will be enrolled to receive dabrafenib (150 mg BID) and trametinib (2 mg once daily) combination therapy for 12 months. At enrollment, subjects will be instructed on the pyrexia management algorithm. This study consists of two Periods for Enrolled subjects: - Treatment Period - subjects will receive up to 12 months of treatment. - Follow-up Period - subjects will be followed through 24 months from their first dose date for relapse, and through end of study for overall survival. Follow-up will start once treatment is complete or is prematurely discontinued and continue through the end of the study, regardless of disease recurrence.
This is a passive enhance safety surveillance (ESS) of Stamaril® vaccine in Korea. The objective is to collect suspected related adverse events following vaccination with Stamaril® in routine practice.
The South Kivu province of DRC has experience continuous armed conflict over the last several decades; as a result, livelihoods and health metrics are uniformly poor. Thus, the objective of this study is to determine if an integrated set of social enterprises can improve child health while offering viable and scalable new business opportunities for the community. Specific research questions include the impact of the individual enterprises on (1) child health, (2) access to clean water, and (3) economic opportunities in the region.
Febrile neutropenia is a common complication in pediatric oncology patients. Standard of care requires admission of all patients for intravenous antibiotics until cultures are negative, patients are afebrile and there are signs of bone marrow recovery. This often results in prolonged hospital admissions with significant financial costs, decreased quality of life and potential secondary infections. More recent data suggests it may be possible to identify a "low risk" group that can be discharged prior to signs of bone marrow recovery. At this time, researchers have been unable to identify a model that is safe for early discharge across institutions.
Background: In developing countries, micronutrient deficiency in infants is associated with growth faltering, morbidity, and delayed motor development. One of the potentially low-cost and sustainable solutions is to use locally producible food for the home fortification of complementary foods. Objective: The objectives are to test the hypothesis that locally producible spirulina platensis supplementation would achieve the following: 1) increase infant physical growth; 2) reduce morbidity; and 3) improve motor development. Design: 501 Zambian infants are randomly assigned into a control (CON) group or a spirulina (SP) group. Children in the CON group (n=250) receive a soya-maize-based porridge for 12 months, whereas those in the SP group (n=251) receive the same food but with the addition of spirulina. The change in infants' anthropometric status, morbidity, and motor development over 12 months are assessed.
our goal is to study the effects of dopamine activity, using Ritalin ingestion, on neuromuscular function over the course of a progressive heating and cooling protocol developed in our lab. We hypothesize that Ritalin will minimize the previously reported progressive impairment in neuromuscular function with hyperthermia compared to placebo, suggesting that dopamine activity preserves neuromuscular capacity with hyperthermia.
The purpose of this pilot study is to improve inpatient monitoring of severely-ill children admitted to the hospital in low resource settings at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Given the high ratio of patients to medical staff in these settings, the lack of reliable patient monitoring tools, and the high rate of early inpatient mortality, we will prospectively train parents as monitoring aids of their hospitalized children. Early recognition and intervention in critical illness is important to avoid (further) organ failure. Parents will be taught how to assess their child's mental status, work of breathing and capillary refill time which will inform a 3-point severity of illness scale. The severity of illness will be conveyed by the parents to the medical staff via color-coded flag system. The goal is to increase the healthcare provider patient reassessment rate according to patients' level of severity to assist in early recognition and treatment of patients' deterioration.
Childhood fever is a prevalent problem. Most febrile children who visit hospital improve without treatment, but a minority require treatment, and a few will have severe disease. The investigators want to improve the diagnosis and management of febrile children by developing tests to distinguish between bacterial and viral disease so that antibiotic treatment can be initiated promptly and only when required. Judicious and prudent use of antibiotics will reduce the likelihood of developing resistant organisms and save treatment costs. There are two parts to recruitment in this study; the first is to assess the management and outcome of febrile children who seek medical treatment in hospital (MOFICHE study). The data will be used to model management strategies for febrile children and enable a cost-effectiveness analysis. Secondly the investigators will prospectively recruit acutely febrile children presenting to hospital, collecting research samples for validation of biomarkers, in combination with clinical phenotypic markers and host genetic markers (BIVA-studies). Any febrile child newborn to under 18 presenting to hospital will be eligible for recruitment. The study will last 5 years.
Whole blood samples will be collected from febrile patients presenting with fever of unknown origin and flu-like syndromes. Collection sites will consent patients and collect one (1) 4 mL whole blood sample from adults and either (1) 2 mL pediatric whole blood sample or 0.5 mL whole blood sample collected in a micro collection container from pediatric patients from each patient enrolled into the study. Study site will test whole blood samples received from collection sites daily using the Applied Biosystems™ Bacillus anthracis Detection Kit. Data generated will demonstrate product specificity when testing febrile whole blood samples.