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This is an observational study based on a population-based EHR database.
Vaccines work by stimulating the body to produce a high-quality, rapid and specific immune response upon exposure to infection by a particular disease-causing microorganism - the microorganism targeted by the vaccine. Evidence is emerging that some vaccines may have additional 'non-specific effects' (NSEs); that is, effects on the immune system beyond the direct protection against the diseases for which the vaccines were developed. It has been proposed that rabies vaccine has protective NSEs in people and animals, with receipt of rabies vaccine in children associated with a reduced risk of meningitis and cerebral malaria in one study, and a history of rabies vaccination in free-roaming dogs associated with increased survival rates in another study. Studies in mice have shown that prior rabies vaccination protects against bacterial sepsis. The biological mechanism of action of any such NSE of rabies vaccine is unknown. Other vaccines with reported protective NSEs (e.g. bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine against tuberculosis, a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) have been show to reprogram the immune system, leading to enhanced protection against infection with disease-causing microorganisms unrelated to M. tuberculosis. In this study, we will test the hypothesis that rabies vaccine has non-specific protective effects against common infectious disease (CID) syndromes (upper respiratory illness, diarrhea and fever) in a population of veterinary students. We will randomly assign previously-unvaccinated students who volunteer for the study to receive a primary course of three injections of rabies vaccine (experimental group) or an identical course of three injections of sterile water (control group). Participants will not know to which group they have been assigned. We will ask all participants to report episodes of illness through an online survey each week for 26 weeks, and will also record all clinically- and laboratory-confirmed cases of illness with CID syndromes. We hypothesize that rates of self-reported new episodes of CID illness over 26 weeks will be at least 25% lower in the experimental group, relative to the control group.
The ivestigators propose to conduct a nationwide (Nigeria), prospective, non-interventional cohort study describing the clinical course, biological characteristics, case management and outcomes in patients hospitalized for a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of Lassa fever in tertiary medical facilities situated in the most affected Nigerian states. Special focuses will be made on situations at risk of bad outcome such as pregnancies, acute kidney injury and electrolytic imbalance in patients with confirmed Lassa fever. Participants for which the diagnosis of Lassa fever will be finally excluded by RT-PCR will constitute the control group.
Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is an emergency medical condition that is prevalent in military soldiers, athletes, and laborers. It is diagnosed when the rectal temperature is above 40°C with the presence of central nervous dysfunction (altered mental status). The gold standard method of care for EHS is immediate onsite whole body cooling using cold-water immersion (cooling rates >0.15°C•min-1), which is reported to have the highest cooling rate. In the treatment of EHS, selecting a cooling modality with a high cooling rate becomes crucial to minimize the time above the critical threshold of body temperature at 40°C to less than 30 minutes for the best chance of survival and to minimize the severity of prognosis. However, in situations where cold water immersion is not feasible (in certain military, firefighter, or other remote settings), other cooling modalities must be available that have a cooling capacity similar to that of cold-water immersion. In this proposed study, the investigators aim to examine the cooling rates of the Polar Breeze® device (developed by Statim Technologies, LLC, Clearwater, FL) compared to rotating ice towels, a cooling method often recommended by sports medicine professionals as an alternative to cold-water immersion, and passive rest in participants with exercise-induced hyperthermia.
Subcutaneous perfusion is an underused technique, the effectiveness of which has been demonstrated. A number of drugs of different therapeutic classes, including morphine, have a good level of scientific evidence for use by this route. Subcutaneous Acetaminophen injection is being used in some medical centers, mainly in Europe, despite the lack of definite evidence on its efficacy. This study aims to quantify the degree of effectiveness of subcutaneous Acetaminophen infusions for pain or fever in Palliative Care, as well as determining its safety.
The purpose of this study is determine the ability of bedside ultrasound performed in the Emergency Department and Outpatient Department can predict the severity of disease during a Dengue Fever outbreak in children, in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Our hypothesis is that the presence of gallbladder wall thickening, pulmonary edema/effusions, ascites, pericardial effusion in children correlates with progression to more severe disease.
To evaluate the efficacy of oral melatonin compared to oral diazepam for prevention of recurrent simple febrile seizures.
To test whether Karius Infectious Disease Diagnostic Sequencing assay can detect Dengue Virus in plasma from suspected cases of Dengue or Dengue Fever like-illnesses from samples collected as part of a hospital-based multi-site study conducted in Nepal.
This will be a multi-visit study that will take approximately 3 hours in total. Up to 200 subjects from the BUMC Valley Fever and BUMC Dermatology clinics will be enrolled in this study and assigned to one of three cohorts according to timeline of oral anti-fungal therapy. Subjects in Cohort 1 will be randomized to apply topical cholesterol-containing moisturizers to the skin, hair and lips on either the right or left side of the body daily. Measurements of skin barrier function, appearance of skin and hair, and hair samples will be obtained at baseline and at 4 week follow-up visits. Cohorts 2 and 3 will be observational groups at differing points in oral antifungal treatment regimen. Subjects will be randomized to have measurements of skin barrier function and hair and skin characteristics obtained from either the right or left side of the body at baseline and at monthly follow-up visits.
This clinical study is a multiple center, registering and real-world conditional research. The breast cancer patients planning for chemotherapy evaluated with medium-high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) are recruited, receiving the first level prophylactic use of PEG-rhG-CSF or the second level prophylactic use of PEG-rhG-CSF in at least two cycles of chemotherapy according to real-world clinical judgement and choice by physicians in local cancer center. Comparing real conditional-FN rate, FN-caused hospitalization rate and antibiotic use rate, direct/indirect medical cost.