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The present experimental study aims to explore the effect of an interactive smart toy on children's stress modulation during a stressful experience compared to a non-interactive prototype. It is expected that children given the interactive prototype will experience faster and more effective stress modulation, in comparison to those being given the non-interactive prototype. These findings will complement the ecologically valid data from week-long at-home deployments of the interactive prototype with families with low socioeconomic status.
Distancing oneself from a current distressing situation is a mental skill that can help people to manage their emotions. However, little is known about how distancing works in the brain. Recently developed tools in neuroscience that can modify brain activity might be able to make distancing more or less effective. In doing so, the results could lead to a better understanding of the cognitive processes and neural circuits that support distancing as a form of emotion regulation. If successful, this research may lead to the development of new treatments to help those who suffer from stress-related disorders, such as anxiety and depression.
The primary objective is to examine the feasibility and efficacy of a locally developed brain-computer interface (BCI) based system training for regulating mood in healthy elderly. The investigators hypothesize that elderly who complete the training program will be better at regulating emotions as compared to controls, based on their ratings of the primary outcome measures.
This study will take a group-based intervention for adolescents that reduced sexual risk behavior and create a computer-based version, which is a format that adolescents like and that is more cost-effective. The intervention focuses on teaching adolescents skills for managing their emotions when they are making decisions that could put them at risk (like whether to have sex or drink alcohol). The investigators are hoping to learn whether a computer version of the program will be useful in helping adolescents learn about emotional competence and reducing risky behaviors. The investigators will make a version of the intervention as games on tablet computers in a partnership with a technology company, Klein Buendel. The research team will begin by getting advice from adolescents and experts (in separate groups) about how to convey the ideas from the group program into computer games. Klein Buendel will then create the games. Then, about 10 adolescents will be asked to try out the program and give us feedback about things to change. Klein Buendel will make those changes. Then the investigators will ask about 100 adolescents to volunteer to be randomly placed in one of two groups. One group will do the computer program right away; the other will wait for three months. Both groups will be asked to answer questions and do computer tasks when the team meets them, one month later, and three months later. The investigators will compare the groups to see if the group that received the computer intervention reports being more emotionally competent than the group that has not yet done the computer intervention. The research team will also ask them about their risk behaviors. If this is useful, it may be a good way to enhance health education taught in schools.
Approximately 1 in 4 adolescent mothers will develop depression after delivering a child, though some studies suggest that as many as 53% will develop postpartum depression. A frequent accompanying symptom is emotion dysregulation which not only adversely affects their mental well-being, but jeopardizes their parenting and their child's health. Unfortunately significant barriers exist for young mothers, preventing access to treatment. This study will pilot the feasibility of having public health nurses deliver this 9-session program within a curriculum for teen mothers.
Mindfulness interventions are increasingly offered to undergraduate students at universities world-wide, however the evidence base is very limited. The objective is to evaluate effects of a customized mindfulness intervention (called Mindfulness-Based College) on undergraduate student health. A superiority randomized controlled trial with parallel groups will be performed with 30 participants in each arm. Participants will be randomly assigned to Mindfulness-Based College or health education waitlist control. Investigators will be blinded to treatment allocation. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 10 weeks, and six months. The primary outcome is a college health summary score, including seven evidence-based determinants of health particularly relevant to college student well-being: body mass index, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, sleep quantity, perceived stress, and loneliness. Primary intention-to-treat analyses will evaluate whether MB-College vs. control is associated with the summary score, utilizing generalized linear models. Secondary analyses will evaluate which, if any, of the seven determinants of health are driving associations.
Deficient cognitive control (CC) and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies (ERS) are both central characteristics of major depression. Both are associated with reduced activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe, simple and effective non-invasive method to modulate the cortical excitability. The goal of this randomized, sham-controlled, double blind clinical trial is to examine the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the CC and ERS in depressed patients compared to healthy subjects. Overall, the study will include 44 participants (22 depressed Patients and 22 healthy subjects). Each participant will complete a CC task while receiving sham tDCS in one session and anodal tDCS in the other session (counterbalanced). Afterwards the ERS 'rumination' will be measured during a resting phase by means of a questionnaire and psychophysiological measures (heart rate variability). The investigators hypothesize (a) an amelioration of CC by anodal tDCS and (b) a reduced use of the dysfunctional emotion regulation strategy 'rumination' after anodal tDCS. Overall this experiment will provide new and reliable data for the development of new treatment methods.
The research proposes to use an innovative solution to shape brain circuits that support executive function and emotion reactivity -using targeted neurobehavioral intervention.