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Parallel to epidemic obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence has markedly increased during the last years, and recent data point out that one of three adults courses with this disease. NAFLD etiopathogeny is multifactorial, an inadequate diet characterized by high fructose content and deficient consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, scarce physical activity, excess abdominal visceral fat (AVF), insulin resistance, and genetic susceptibility have shown to be relevant determinants. Although NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma, its most frequent complications are type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and coronary artery disease (CAD); therefore, NAFLD is considered a multisystemic disease and a public health problem. Currently, no specific pharmacological treatment is available for NAFLD, hence, modifications in life style, including weight loss by caloric restriction and increased physical activity, are still the treatment of choice for this type of patients. Recent studies indicate that the supplementation of the diet with omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin (eicosapentanoic acid [EPA]/docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and the Mediterranean-style diet (rich in omega-3, antioxidants, and fiber) are efficient for NAFLD treatment, because they diminish the intrahepatic fat content and improve the metabolic profile, even in non-caloric restriction diets. However, the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics make the consumption of these food difficult in some populations, which has led to the search of alternative vegetal sources rich in these nutrients. Although, there is evidence in animal models suggesting that chia (Salvia hispanica L.) could be an alternative able to reduce the intrahepatic fat content, its effect on NAFLD has not been studied in humans. Hence, the objective of this study was to analyze whether the consumption of an isocaloric diet supplemented with 25 g/day of chia can diminish NAFLD and the metabolic anomalies that accompany the disease.
The proof-of-principle EatWellEUR pilot study will investigate whether online personalised dietary advice encourages greater dietary behaviour change after 12 weeks compared with general population-based diet advice. Dietary change will be quantified from an 11-item diet quality score (DQS) suitable for Northern European populations that is calculated from the results of the eNutri food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and week 12.
It is well known that dietary protein transiently stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) whereby changes in MPS in response to feeding may be regulated by specific downstream target proteins of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, such as S6K1, rpS6, and eIF2B. A meal deficient in protein, however, does not increase the rate of MPS because a rise in the bioavailability of amino acids does not occur. In addition, the source of dietary proteins has been shown to impact postprandial blood levels of amino acids. The concept that certain types of proteins are "fast acting" or "slow acting" has been shown to affect the postprandial profile of amino acids appearing in the systemic circulation. Native whey and micellar casein are both dairy proteins that contain a similar amount of essential (EAA), but blood EAA levels increase faster and to a higher level after the consumption of whey protein. Differences in gastric emptying, digestion and absorption kinetics between micellar casein and native whey are the underlying factors. Nonetheless, micellar casein protein has been shown to protract MPS in humans. Despite the significant amount of information gained with respect to both of these protein sources, the effects of combinatorial formulations on the postprandial profile of amino acids appearing in the blood is less well known.
The investigators plan to use our recently developed oral carnitine challenge test (OCCT) as a tool to exam individual's trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) production capacity from their gut microbiota. By using data collected by OCCT, the investigators defined subjects as TMAO high producer or TMAO low producer and apply low carnitine/choline diet as dietary intervention in accordance. After dietary intervention for two months, the investigators repeated OCCT for these participants and compare the TMAO production capacity before and after dietary intervention.
Short chain fructooligosaccharide (FOS) is known as a prebiotic fiber/nutrient and has been documented to demonstrate different health benefits including glucose control, gut health, mineral absorption, weight and immunity. FossenceTM is a short chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), sweet tasting, soluble prebiotic dietary fibre which is produced through Tata Chemicals Limited's patented process and is currently US GRAS notified (safe for consumption). The formulation and properties of scFOS suggest that the molecule may potentially play a role in glucose and insulin metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the rise of glucose and insulin in the blood after consuming FossenceTM that has been added or substituted into a sugar drink or white bread.
Wheat is one of the most important crop for humans and it represents a source of multiple nutrients, dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, especially if consumed as wholegrain. Several studies have suggested that Triticum heritage varieties could present a healthier and better nutritional profile than modern wheats, by providing more vitamins, minerals and nutraceutical compounds. Although the effect of ancient grain consumption have been partially investigated in both animal and human studies, the potential impact of Triticum heritage varieties compared to modern ones on post-prandial glucose metabolism is still unclear. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the impact on post-prandial glycaemia and insulinemia of different types of breads formulated with flours derived from mix of heritage varieties belonging to the Triticum genus selected and cultivated in specific areas of Emilia Romagna region, compared to breads made with conventional/modern wheat flours.
Recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) hypertension guidelines recommend lifestyle modification for patients with blood pressure >= 130/80 mmHg. While eating a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-type diet, increasing physical activity, and weight loss have been shown to reduce blood pressure, limited resources are available in the primary care setting to help patients make these changes. In this study, the investigators will compare the efficacy of a self-guided vs. dietitian-led approach using web-based lifestyle modification tools to reduce weight, improve dietary quality, and lower blood pressure in overweight/obese adults with untreated, elevated blood pressure.
The Physicians Committee is carrying out a research study to improve the investigator's understanding and expand the literature to quantify the effect of foods on blood cholesterol. This study will measure changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration, sometimes called "bad cholesterol," over 2 study periods of 4 weeks each, with 1 rest week in between. Approximately 50 subjects will participate in this study.
Participating in regular physical activity and consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables can aid in the management of various acute and chronic side effects of cancer treatment; however, few rural-dwelling young adult cancer survivors are active enough and consume enough fruits and vegetables to accrue benefits. Telehealth interventions show promise for helping these young adults increase their motivation to participate in these behaviours by addressing barriers associated with accessing face-to-face behaviour counselling services (e.g., time commitment, travel distance). Yet, few researchers have examined the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth intervention that provides motivational support grounded in self-determination theory for these health behaviours in rural-dwelling young adult cancer survivors. Based on previous research, the researchers reasoned that rural-dwelling young adult cancer survivors' physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption would be more likely to increase if they participated in a telehealth intervention therefore, the researchers aim to test the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the intervention. The researchers also aim to assess if changes in perceived basic psychological need satisfaction, behaviour regulation, and perceived autonomy support are associated with changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption.
A research team from King's College London are investigating how diet can be used as a treatment for Crohn's disease. The investigators have designed a new diet and eventually wish to test whether the diet can be used to manage Crohn's disease and reduce gut inflammation. Before doing this, the investigators need to find out how practical it is for people to follow the diet for 14 days by conducting this 'feasibility' study. A feasibility study is a small study that aims to highlight any issues before informing the design of a larger research trial. The diet the investigators have designed is called the Crohn's Diet. The evidence for this diet is based on recent research which suggests that certain food ingredients may be involved in triggering gut inflammation. The study's primary aim is to assess the practicalities of following the Crohn's Diet. It will also assess compliance to the Crohn's Diet and if following it changes the nutritional balance from the normal diet.