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The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of whole-body hyperthermia in comparison to wait list on depressive symptom severity in patients with mild to moderate depressive disorder currently not under psychotherapeutic or antidepressant drug treatment. Secondary aims included further quality of life outcomes, immunological parameters, and tolerability/safety of the hyperthermia.
The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of whole-body hyperthermia in addition to standard medical care in comparison to standard medical care alone on depressive symptom severity in patients with moderate to severe depressive disorder. Secondary aims included further quality of life outcomes, immunological parameters, and tolerability/safety of the hyperthermia.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a common and debilitating illness. It affects a person's family and personal relationships, work, education, and life. It changes sleeping and eating habits and significantly impairs patients' general health. The disorder affects Veterans more than the general population, both as an isolated illness and in conjunction with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicidality. Symptoms in a notable proportion of patients (~30%) do not respond to behavioral and pharmacological interventions, and new treatments are in great need. One such treatment, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), has been cleared by Food and Drug Administration for treatment in MDD. TMS is effective in around 60% of patients with treatment-resistant MDD but is associated with significant financial and time burden. Further insights into the neurobiological effects of TMS and markers for functional recovery prediction and treatment progression are of great value. The goal of this proposal is to use human electrophysiology (electroencephalography, hereafter EEG, in particular) and machine learning to predict treatment response in candidates for TMS treatment and also study TMS's mechanism of action. Doing so has several benefits for patients, as prediction of treatment helps providers in screening out the patients for whom TMS is ineffective and understanding the mechanism allows us to refine and individualize the treatment. The investigators will recruit 35 patients with treatment-resistant MDD and record resting state EEG signal with a dense electrode array before and after a 6-week clinical course of TMS treatment. The investigators will use machine learning (Sparse regressions) to predict treatment outcome using functional connectivity (Coherence) maps derived from the EEG signal. The investigators also will use classifiers to track changes in functional connectivity through the course of treatment. Based on our preliminary data, the investigators hypothesize that weaker functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex (where the stimulation is delivered) and parietal/posterior midline sites predict better response to treatment and that TMS treatment will enhance these connections. The data collected here would be used as a seed and preliminary data for future federal (NIH and the VA) career development awards which will focus on the use of EEG to better understand brain function and neuromodulation treatments.
Antidepressants is the primary treatment for depression, but only less than 50% of the patients get clinical remission. There is no objective markers to select antidepressants for clinical treatment . Clinical choose usually use experience and waste a lot of time, even the patients cannot be treated timely and effectively. The investigators found that the later antidepressant effect for 8 weeks is related with early brain functional response. Present prospectively drug treatment and follow-up study intends to adopt pharmacological imaging research methods to detect the brain function or structure change of three different mechanisms of antidepressant drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, escitalopram), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs, duloxetine), norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs, bupropion) in depression patients. Brain functional or structural magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at baseline, 1 days, 14 days and 12 weeks after treatment. The investigators want to observe the changes of brain functional networks and structure at different time points, acute and chronic treatment induced during drug treatment. Combined with the blood concentration detection, symptom change, cognitive function tests, the investigators also hope to determine the different mechanisms of drug efficacy of antidepressants with different mechanisms. The second aim is to explore different mechanisms of brain function for effective or ineffective drug response. The results of the study will help to further explain the mechanism of different antidepressants, to facilitate the development of early indicators for drug efficacy and individual treatment decision.
PEMF (Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields) therapy has been used to stimulate bone repair in non-union since the 1970s. This is an accepted use, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the US. The mode of action of PEMF is based on creating small electrical fields in tissue and thereby promoting healing. Besides it has been shown that PEMF enhance regeneration of nerve fibers exposed to a lesion For treatment of depression the PEMF equipment, which are provided by the company Re5 A/S, consists of a 220 V impulse generator that creates electrical impulses and an applicator which consists of an electrical cable connected to a helmet on which there are 7 electrical coils on the inside. In comparison with the rTMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) equipment, which uses stimuli approaching neuronal firing level, the PEMF fields in human is very much lower.
An objective measure of treatment response could be a valuable new tool in the armamentarium of depression management, and this holds true for stimulation-based and pharmacological therapies alike. Hence, the Medibio Depression Monitoring Study will use the Medibio analytics platform to characterize autonomic, circadian, and sleep patterns before and during the initial 8 weeks of pharmacologic therapy for moderate-to-severe depression. The study will also explore any differences in these measures between treatment responders and non-responders, and between depression subtypes, including bipolar and unipolar depression. The study will also characterize longitudinal, ambulatory EEG measures throughout the observation period.
This study aims to determine whether the GeneSight Psychotropic test can result in better treatment outcomes for patients with treatment-naive major depressive disorder
Deficient cognitive control (CC) is one of the central characteristics of major depression (MD). Hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been linked with this deficit. Antidepressants and cognitive-behavioral therapies modify CC most-likely as a common mechanism of treatment. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe, simple and effective non-invasive method to modulate the cortical excitability. It has been shown, that the activity of the dlPFC can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with polarity-dependent learning-phase specific effects on performance that, when combined with training, can outlast the stimulation. The goal of this randomized, sham-controlled, rater blind clinical trial is to investigate the effect of a tDCS-enhanced CC Training (CCT) on depressive symptom severity and compare the stimulation intensities 1mA, 2mA and sham tDCS. Overall, the study will include 57 participants (n = 19 per group). Each participant will complete 12 training sessions with online sham/ anodal tDCS. As a training task we will use an adaptive version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT). In the PASAT, digits are presented auditive and participants have to add the current digit to the digit they heard before. In the adaptive version the interstimulus-intervals decrease (increase) when four consecutive trials are correct (incorrect). The PASAT is known to elicit frustration. Participants have to exert cognitive control over these emotions to complete the task successfully. Before, during and after the training symptom severity will be assessed. Baseline and post-training performance in the PASAT and in a transfer task (delayed working memory task, DWM) will be measured. To further explore variables that influence the effect of tDCS on depressive symptom severity we will measure brain activity (EEG, NIRS), heart rate, global functioning (GAF), emotion regulation strategies, self-esteem, mood ratings and subjective performance ratings before and after the training and collect genetic factors. Sustainability of the training effects will be measured at a follow-up visit (3 months later).
This study will test whether seven days administration of a serotonin receptor subtype 4 (5HT4) agonist called PF-04995274 has positive effects on emotional processing and neural activity in unmedicated depressed patients compared to placebo. The study will also include a group of patients randomised to seven days administration of citalopram (20 mg), which is a standard treatment for depression.
This study will test whether seven days adjunctive administration of a serotonin receptor subtype 4 (5HT4) agonist called PF-04995274 has positive effects on emotional processing and neural activity in medicated, treatment-resistant depressed patients compared to placebo.