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Given the existing controversy regarding the appropriate determination time for placement of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the modest ability of current criteria to determine which patients will experience SCD, and the high impact of SCD to society, we propose to conduct a prospective non-randomized observational study to determine: - Whether quantification of left ventricular (LV) scar volume by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMRI) prior to hospital discharge helps to predict which patients will have a low ejection fraction (35%) at follow up and qualify for ICD implantation. - Whether quantification of infarct scar volume by CMRI will help to identify which patients will experience malignant ventricular arrhythmias and/or SCD at follow-up, independent of the LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Primary hypothesis: Percentage of left ventricular scar volume as measured by CMRI post-MI strongly correlates with LVEF at 40 days and 3 months. Secondary hypothesis: 1. A volume of >40% of left ventricular scar measured by CMRI post-MI is predictive of LVEF less than 35% at 40 days and at 3 months 2. Volume scar as measured by Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after AMI (at day 5) is predictive of clinical outcomes: SCD, total mortality, heart failure admission and life-threatening malignant ventricular arrhythmias regardless of ejection fraction at 40 days and at 3 months. Safety hypothesis: ICDs will be implanted if patients meet criteria at 40 days post MI as per the current American College of Cardiology (ACC) /American Heart Association (AHA) /Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities
The purpose of the Improve SCA Bridge study is to characterize the care pathway flow of post‐acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients as a result of standard assessments of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in the acute phase (≤14 days post‐ acute MI) and chronic phase (≥40‐90 days post‐acute MI).
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a lifesaving procedure used to treat severe forms of heart and/or lung failure. It works by the principal of replacing the function of these organs by taking blood from the patient, provide it with oxygen outside the body and return it to the patient in one continuous circuit. Because of the evaluability of better technology, the use of ECMO has exponentially risen over the last decade. This treatment is very invasive and carries a number of risks. It is mostly used in situations where it seems likely that the patient would otherwise die and no other less invasive measure could change this. Still in large registries 50-60% of patients die which is often due to complications associated with the treatment. One of the most important complication is caused by the activation of clotting factors during the contact with the artificial surfaces of the device. This can lead to clot formation inside the patient or the device. To counterbalance this anticoagulation is needed. Because of the consumption of clotting factors and the heparin therapy bleeding complications are also very common in ECMO. Clinicians are challenged to balance these competing risks and are often forced to transfuse blood products to treat these conditions, which comes with additional risks for the patient. Many experienced centres have reported thromboembolic and bleeding events as the most important contributor to a poor outcome of this procedure. However, no international study combining the experience of multiple centres to compare their practice and identify risk factors which can be altered to reduce these risks. This study has been endorsed by the international ECMONet and aims to observe the practice in up to 50 centres and 500 patients worldwide to generate the largest ever published database on this topic. It will concentrate on patients with severe heart failure and will be able to identify specific risk factors for thromboembolic and bleeding events. Some of these factors may be modifiable by change in practice and can subsequently be evaluated in clinical trials. Some of these factors may include target values for heparin therapy and infusion of clotting factors. This study will directly improve patient management by informing clinicians which measures are associated with the best outcome and indirectly helps building trials to increase the evidence further.
To establish whether a pre-hospital advanced physician/ paramedic cardiac arrest team that is ECMO capable can establish ECMO flow within 30 minutes of collapse. The Sub30 study will investigate the technical and logistical feasibility of instituting pre-hospital Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (ECPR) within 30 minutes of collapse for selected patients (n=6) in a geographical sector of Greater London. It will achieve this through a unique collaboration between the primary emergency dispatch and response services (London Ambulance Service NHS Trust, LAS), pre-hospital practitioners (LAS and London Air Ambulance) and clinicians in ECMO (Barts Health NHS Trust).
The overall aim of the project is to develop a national registry to accurately measure the burden of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) among the general Canadian population. This project will create a common platform to link existing sources of information (EMS, Coroner and Administrative Databases) in order to fully understand the causes and outcomes of SCA. This comprehensive, unique registry will inform the progress and effectiveness of all CANet SCA programs aimed at reducing SCA. Understanding the antecedents, causes and outcomes of SCA will allow for new initiatives/investigations to reduce SCA, by using targeted interventions both effectively and efficiently.
Studies have shown that the risk of developing heart arrhythmias, is increased in patients receiving medication for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. The QT-interval on a electrocardiogram (ECG) is often used to assess the patients risk of developing heart arrhythmias. The QT-interval defines the hearts electrical resting period and a long interval is linked to an increased risk of developing heart arrhythmias. In this project the investigators wish to examine possible side-effects in patients receiving medication for ADHD and depression and their dynamic QT-interval changes, by analysing the ECG changes that occur during "Brisk Standing".
This study evaluates the feasibility and safety of a management approach that incorporates VT-ablation and S-ICD implantation in secondary prevention patients. This is a single arm prospective study with 30 patients eligible for implantation of an ICD for the secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death.
The prevalence of valvular heart disease is on the rise along with the aging society and the generalization of echocardiography. Furthermore, the rheumatic valvular heart disease is much more prevalent in Asia than in Western countries, and the frequency of valve disease is higher in Asia. The effect of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy is well established and has become a standard of care. However, there is limited research on the effect of ICD implantation for primary prevention in patients with heart failure due to valvular heart disease. In a small study, the incidence of fatal cardiac arrhythmia was lower in patients with valvular cardiomyopathy (5%) who received ICD implantation for primary prevention than in those with ischemic cardiomyopathy. But there is also a report that the appropriate ICD treatment is not different from that of ischemic heart disease in valvular heart disease patients. Therefore, it is necessary to study the primary prevention effect of ICD on valvular cardiomyopathy in a larger number of patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ICD on the prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure due to valvular heart disease through prospective, multicenter, and observational studies.
The PROTECT-ICD trial is a physician-led, multi-centre randomised controlled trial targeting prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients who have poor cardiac function following a myocardial infarct (MI). The trial aims to assess the role of electrophysiology study (EPS) in guiding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation, in patients early following MI (first 40 days). The secondary aim is to assess the utility of cardiac MRI (CMR) in analysing cardiac function and viability as well as predicting inducible and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmia when performed early post MI. Following a MI patients are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The risk is highest in the first 40 days; however, current guidelines exclude patients from receiving an ICD during this time. This limitation is based largely on a single study, The Defibrillator in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (DINAMIT), which failed to demonstrate a benefit of early ICD implantation. However, this study was underpowered and used non-invasive tests to identify patients at high risk. EPS identifies patients with the substrate for re-entrant tachyarrhythmia, and has been found in multiple studies to predict patients at risk of SCD. Contrast-enhanced CMR is a non-invasive test without radiation exposure which can be used to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it provides information on myocardial viability, scar size and tissue heterogeneity. It has an emerging role as a predictor of mortality and spontaneous ventricular arrhythmia in patients with a previous MI. A total of 1,058 patients who are at high risk of SCD based on poor cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%) following a ST-elevation or non-STE myocardial infarct will be enrolled in the trial. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to either the intervention or control arm. In the intervention arm all patients undergo early EPS. Patients with a positive study (inducible ventricular tachycardia cycle length ≥200ms) receive an ICD, while patients with a negative study (inducible ventricular fibrillation or no inducible VT) are discharged without an ICD, regardless of the LVEF. In the control arm patients are treated according to standard local practice. This involves early discharge and repeat assessment of cardiac function after 40 days or after 90 days following revascularisation (PCI or CABG). ICD implantation after 40 days according to current guidelines (LVEF≤30%, or ≤35% with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III symptoms) could be considered, if part of local standard practice, however the ICD is not funded by the trial. A proportion of trial patients from both the intervention and control arms at >48 hours following MI will undergo CMR to enable correlation with (1) inducible VT at EPS and (2) SCD and non-fatal arrhythmia on follow up. It will be used to simultaneously assess left ventricular function, ventricular strain, myocardial infarction size, and peri-infarction injury. The size of the infarct core, infarct gray zone (as a measure of tissue heterogeneity) and total infarct size will be quantified for each patient. All patients will be followed for 2 years with a combined primary endpoint of non-fatal arrhythmia and SCD. Non-fatal arrhythmia includes resuscitated cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in participants without an ICD. Secondary endpoints will include all-cause mortality, non-sudden cardiovascular death, non-fatal repeat MI, heart failure and inappropriate ICD denial. Secondary endpoints for CMR correlation will include (1) the presence or absence of inducible VT at EP study, and (2) combined endpoint of appropriate ICD activation or SCD at follow up. It is anticipated that the intervention arm will reduce the primary endpoint as a result of prevention of a) early sudden cardiac deaths/cardiac arrest, and b) sudden cardiac death/cardiac arrest in patients with a LVEF of 31-40%. It is expected that the 2-year primary endpoint rate will be reduced from 6.7% in the control arm to 2.8% in the intervention arm with a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 68%. A two-group chi-squared test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level will have 80% power to detect the difference between a Group 1 proportion of 0.028 experiencing the primary endpoint and a Group 2 proportion of 0.067 experiencing the primary endpoint when the sample size in each group is 470. Assuming 1% crossover and 10% loss to follow up the required sample size is 1,058 (n=529 patients per arm). To test the hypothesis that tissue heterogeneity at CMR predicts both inducible and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias will require a sample size of 400 patients to undergo CMR. It is anticipated that the use of EPS will select a group of patients who will benefit from an ICD soon after a MI. This has the potential to change clinical guidelines and save a large number of lives.
Serum Troponin levels pre- and postoperatively will be compared in patients receiving an entirely subcutaneous cardioverter-defibrillator.