There are about 107 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Zimbabwe. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Background Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality worldwide accounting for 25% of maternal deaths. In Zimbabwe PPH is the second most common cause of death. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used to reduce blood loss in elective surgery, bleeding trauma patients, and menorrhagia. The investigators seek to determine the efficacy of TXA in reducing PPH during and after elective caesarean section. Methods and Design The investigators intend to perform an open label randomized control study of 1,162 women who are undergoing elective caesarean section. The participants will be randomly selected to receive an intravenous infusion of TXA 10 minutes prior to skin incision or not to receive the intervention. Prophylactic oxytocin will be administered to all the women. The primary outcome will be incidence of PPH defined by blood loss equal to or more than 1,000ml calculated by determining the difference in haematocrit values taken prior to and 48 hours after caesarean section. Discussion In addition to prophylactic uterotonic administration, TXA is a complementary component acting on the haemostatic process that can be used in the third stage of labour to prevent PPH. It is a promising intervention that is cheap, easy to administer and would be easy to add to routine delivery protocols in hospitals. It would also help to conserve precious resources by reducing the need for blood products, and expensive surgical interventions to manage PPH. This large adequately powered randomized study seeks to determine the efficacy of TXA to validate its routine use at caesarean section to prevent PPH.
Investigators propose to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of an HIV Risk Screening Tool in identifying the risk of being HIV-infected among Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) aged 2-18 years in a community setting.
This randomized phase III trial studies how well human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine therapy works in reducing high-grade cervical lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HPV. Vaccines made from HPV peptides or antigens may help the body build an effective immune response to kill the HPV virus and prevent cervical lesions from developing or coming back after being removed.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and immune response to an HIV clade C vaccine and to an MF59- or alum-adjuvanted clade C Env protein in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults.
This study is evaluating whether screening of a pregnant woman for asymptomatic bacteriuria in each trimester for early detection and treatment of bacteriuria will reduce the incidence of preterm birth in Harare.
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two strategies for multi-month dispensing (MMD) of ART in Community ART Refill Groups (CARGs) on retention, virologic suppression, and cost compared to standard of care. This study is a three-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted among 5,760 stable HIV-positive patients) in Zimbabwe to compare outcomes of three antiretroviral therapy (ART) dispensing models. Outcomes of retention in care, virologic suppression, and cost effectiveness will be investigated in 30 purposively selected clusters (facilities) which are randomized into three arms; standard of care (3 months dispensing at facilities), three-month dispensing in CARGs, and six-month dispensing in CARGs. Each study arm will have 10 clusters stratified into 2 urban and 8 rural. Study participants will be followed, and outcomes will be measured at 12 months and 24 months. Qualitative research will be conducted at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months (20 participant Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) and 20 provider Key Informant Interview (KII) at each interval) to understand patient and health provider acceptability of multi-month dispensing of ART within CARGs. Other outcomes of interest include measuring gains of facility decongestion and feasibility of multi-month dispensing of ART within CARGs. Cost analysis will include comparisons of patient level costs, cost per patient outcomes and cost effectiveness across the three study arms.
To examine the impact of health determinants at the individual (e.g. health related behaviors) and societal level (e.g. environmental factors, health related policy, quality of health systems) on health outcomes (e.g. death, non-communicable disease development) across a range of socioeconomic and health resource settings. Additional components of this study will examine genetic factors for non-communicable diseases. This will be examined both through a cross sectional component, and prospectively (cohort component).
This study will assess the safety of the PrePex device as applied to HIV positive men by assessing the rate of clinical adverse events. The study will include adult, HIV + men who are eligible to receive the PrePex procedure per the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) eligibility criteria.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY RESEARCH QUESTION TO BE ADDRESSED BY THIS PROPOSAL What are the factors associated with retention-in-care of women enrolled in the eMTCT Option B+ program at eMTCT (elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV) sites with high retention-in-care compared to eMTCT sites with low retention in care? Hypotheses Null hypothesis H0: The attributable rate of low retention-in-care of women in the eMTCT program at eMTCT sites equals zero. Alternative hypothesis HA: The attributable risk of low retention-in-care of women in the eMTCT program at eMTCT sites is not equal to zero. RATIONALE FOR RESEARCH There is poor retention of women along the PMTCT (prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV) cascade. Retention in eMTCT refers to documented regular participation of the pregnant woman, confirmed HIV positive, together with her child or children not yet confirmed as HIV-positive, in all prescribed activities aimed at preventing transmission of HIV from her to the child, and scheduled or unscheduled HIV-care related visits, measured during or at the end of care. It results in uninterrupted supply of ART (antiretroviral therapy). Retention in PMTCT ranges between 10.6% and 76.5% in other countries. In Zimbabwe it was found to drop from 83% at second pick up of antiretroviral drugs to 45% at fourth pick up of antiretroviral drugs. Poor retention in PMTCT leads to poor health outcomes in the mother and the baby. These include increased viral load, reduced CD4 count, reduced adherence to ART, emergency of drug resistant HIV strains, reduced quality of life, increased frequency of opportunistic infections, increased all-cause hospitalizations and death of women and children. HIV infection contributes to between 6 and 20% of maternal deaths. On the other hand, about 14% of all new infections are due to MTCT (mother to child transmission of HIV). Retention in care is better at some clinics and hospitals. The purpose of the study will be to determine the factors associated with retention-in-care of women enrolled in the eMTCT Option B+ program at eMTCT sites. The following objectives will be addressed in the study: 1. To assess the PMTCT Option B Plus program at selected eMTCT sites. 2. To determine the prevalence of retention among women enrolled in the eMTCT Option B+ program at selected eMTCT sites. 3. To determine the incidence of attrition among women enrolled in the eMTCT Option B+ program at selected eMTCT sites. 4. To identify factors associated with variability in levels of retention-in-care of women in the eMTCT Option B+ program at selected eMTCT sites. 5. To explore the barriers and facilitators of retention among women enrolled in the eMTCT Option B+ program. METHODS The study is being done through a nested, embedded, mixed methods study with priority given to a prospective cohort methodology. The supplementary design is a simple descriptive qualitative design carried out through focus group discussions. A mixed methods design caters for the weaknesses in either a qualitative or a quantitative design. Hence, it is ideal in study of complex human issues such as retention in the PMTCT Option B Plus program. In the study, 462 pregnant women enrolled for PMTCT Option B Plus will be followed up for 12 months in an open cohort. The sample size was calculated using Stata software based on a power of 0.8, a margin of error of 0.05, a design effect of 1.1 and a retention rate of 0.45. Six randomly selected eMTCT sites in Mashonaland East Province were chosen for the study. Retention rate at the sites since 2013 will be calculated. Three sites with lower retention will be considered as the exposure sites. The other 3 sites will be the unexposed sites. Option B Plus, a recently introduced and recommended PMTCT option, was meant to benefit pregnant women, in addition to their children and sexual partners. Hence, the involvement of women as participants. Four focus group discussions will also be done, with nursing mothers to ascertain the barriers and facilitators of retention in PMTCT Option B plus. Included in the study will be HIV positive pregnant and nursing women coming for PMTCT Option B Plus. Women who can communicate in English or Shona and are without psychiatric conditions will also be included. Emancipated minors, below 18 years of age will also be included. Excluded from the study will be women enrolled in PMTCT Options A or B, women with psychiatric conditions or those who are too ill to participate. The study was approved by The Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe. Signed voluntary consent is sought from participants. Data is being collected through questionnaires and audio-taped focus group discussions. Follow-up data will also be extracted from eMTCT registers at respective eMTCT sites. Data is kept in locked cabinets only accessible to the principal investigator and the supervisors.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and antiviral activity of VRC01 in HIV-1-infected infants beginning combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).