There are about 187 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Zambia. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is largely preventable through regular screening. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends cervical screening for HIV-positive women every three years. Currently the least costly method for screening and the most viable option for many countries is visual inspection after application of acetic acid (VIA). Alternative testing methods are HPV testing and assessment with a portable colposcope. The investigators plan to assess and compare the diagnostic test accuracy of these screening tests in women living with HIV. All women will receive histopathology reference standard.
The purpose of this Quality Improvement initiative is to reduce severe morbidity and mortality among premature infants through proven and cost-effective clinical management during the antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. In order to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity due to preterm birth complications, health facilities must be able to identify and manage women in preterm labor, accurately administer medications, and provide high-quality postnatal care.
This trial will evaluate whether empirical treatment against cytomegalovirus and tuberculosis improves survival of HIV-infected infants with severe pneumonia.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of taeniosis and (neuro)cysticercosis in two districts in the southern (Gwembe) and eastern province (Chipata) of Zambia.
The second visit of the Expanded Programme of Immunization when the child is 2 months old (EPI-2) represents a unique opportunity to link the EPI and PMTCT programmes and to introduce preventive and therapeutic rescue interventions in order to: 1) Assess the efficacy of the PMTCT cascade up to 2 months postpartum; 2) Allow at least 80% of HIV-1-infected infants identified at the second EPI visit who were not involved in HIV care to initiate ARVs at the earliest, but no later than 2 months after confirmation of HIV diagnosis; 3) Reduce HIV-1 transmission to less than 3% between 2 and 12 months among exposed children who completed the second EPI visit
Despite progress in reducing tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in the past 20 years, TB is a top ten cause of death in children under 5 years worldwide. However, childhood TB remains massively underreported and undiagnosed, mostly because of the challenges in confirming its diagnosis due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulty in obtaining expectorated sputum in children. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. There is growing evidence that, in high TB burden settings, TB is common in children with pneumonia, with up to 23% of those admitted to hospital with an initial diagnosis of pneumonia later being diagnosed as TB. However, the current WHO standard of care (SOC) for young children with pneumonia considers a diagnosis of TB only if the child has a history of prolonged symptoms or fails to respond to antibiotic treatments. Hence, TB is often under-diagnosed or diagnosed late in children presenting with pneumonia. In this context, the investigators are proposing to assess the impact on mortality of adding the systematic early detection of TB using Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra, performed on NPAs and stool samples, to the WHO SOC for children with severe pneumonia, followed by immediate initiation of anti-TB treatment in children testing positive on any of the samples. TB-Speed Pneumonia is a multicentric, stepped wedge diagnostic trial conducted in six countries with high TB incidence: Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia and Cambodia.
This study will assess the efficacy of Pyramax administered for three-day, two-day or one day, in clearing a P. falciparum infection in asymptomatic carriers.
This is the intervention phase of a study to investigate the impact of low-cost bundled interventions on improving the infection control practices in the labor and delivery units in rural healthcare settings in Zambia. A baseline observational phase of the health care providers' infection control procedures was done. In this intervention phase, low-cost bundle of interventions, including health care provider education, behavior feedback, visual and Short Message Service (SMS)/text message reminders, and provision of alcoholic hand rubs, will be implemented at 5 study sites. 12 weeks after the initiation of interventions, endline data will be collected. The data from endline after interventions will be compared with baseline data from observational phase to detect changes in infection control practices at each study site after the interventions.
Tuberculosis (TB) has overtaken HIV as the leading infectious cause of death worldwide and requires a major policy shift for it to be controlled in line with the WHO Stop-TB goal to "end TB". However, how to control TB at population level in the context of HIV, is unknown. Some of the best evidence to date comes from the Southern African ZAMSTAR trial, where a household-level TB /HIV intervention including TB symptom screening, HIV counselling and testing with linkage to care and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) as indicated, was offered to all household members of TB patients. Despite only reaching ~6% of households in the intervention communities, the data showed a nearly 20% reduction in TB disease prevalence and 50% reduction in TB infection incidence at the population-level. Increasing the scope of the intervention to all households and thus all community members, may therefore significantly change the burden of TB and "end TB". The proposed TREATS project builds on the experience of ZAMSTAR and is nested within the ongoing HPTN 071 (PopART) trial (NCT01900977), the largest ever trial of a combination HIV/TB prevention intervention being conducted in Zambia and South Africa. The project consists of 4 linked studies that will provide definitive cluster-randomised evidence of the effect of a household-level combined HIV and TB prevention intervention on the burden of TB at population level. The project will produce two major outputs of global importance to public health policy. The first will provide definitive evidence of the effectiveness of scaled up combination TB/HIV prevention interventions on TB. The second output will improve understanding of the best ways to measure the impact of public health interventions on TB burden. This is a unique opportunity to assess the impact of combination HIV prevention, including universal HIV testing and treatment, combined with population screening for active TB on the burden of TB. The HPTN071(PopART) trial,a cluster randomised trial in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa with a population size of approximately 1 million individuals, is unlikely ever to be repeated. The recently adopted WHO guidelines of a "universal treatment" strategy for HIV, will prompt policy-makers to seek strategies of case-finding for HIV offering an opportunity to conduct TB screening on a large scale. The results from the TREATS project will therefore provide unique and timely information of the additional costs and benefits of combined TB and HIV prevention strategies at population level. TREATS will also assess novel methods to measure the effect of interventions on burden of TB in the trial communities. The latest interferon gamma release assay QuantiFERON® Gold Plus will be assessed for measuring impact of TB interventions on incidence of infection. A combination of Xpert® MTB/RIF and computer aided digital X-ray (CAD4TB) will be assessed for measuring prevalence of active TB. These new methods will provide important information about the best way of measuring TB incidence and prevalence rates and allow triangulation of the different methods to inform global estimates of TB burden in the post MDG era. The TREATS consortium will stimulate synergy between leading African research groups (Zambart, HST); new European technology (Delft Diagnostic Imaging, Qiagen); international TB bodies (The Union) and European research centres (LSHTM, Imperial College, Sheffield University and KNCV), as well as with the US funders of the HPTN071/PopART trial.
This study is a multi-centre interventional study at seven tertiary paediatric surgery centres in Ghana, Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania aimed at reducing mortality from gastroschisis.