There are about 183 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Zambia. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of taeniosis and (neuro)cysticercosis in two districts in the southern (Gwembe) and eastern province (Chipata) of Zambia.
The second visit of the Expanded Programme of Immunization when the child is 2 months old (EPI-2) represents a unique opportunity to link the EPI and PMTCT programmes and to introduce preventive and therapeutic rescue interventions in order to: 1) Assess the efficacy of the PMTCT cascade up to 2 months postpartum; 2) Allow at least 80% of HIV-1-infected infants identified at the second EPI visit who were not involved in HIV care to initiate ARVs at the earliest, but no later than 2 months after confirmation of HIV diagnosis; 3) Reduce HIV-1 transmission to less than 3% between 2 and 12 months among exposed children who completed the second EPI visit
Despite progress in reducing tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in the past 20 years, TB is a top ten cause of death in children under 5 years worldwide. However, childhood TB remains massively underreported and undiagnosed, mostly because of the challenges in confirming its diagnosis due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulty in obtaining expectorated sputum in children. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. There is growing evidence that, in high TB burden settings, TB is common in children with pneumonia, with up to 23% of those admitted to hospital with an initial diagnosis of pneumonia later being diagnosed as TB. However, the current WHO standard of care (SOC) for young children with pneumonia considers a diagnosis of TB only if the child has a history of prolonged symptoms or fails to respond to antibiotic treatments. Hence, TB is often under-diagnosed or diagnosed late in children presenting with pneumonia. In this context, the investigators are proposing to assess the impact on mortality of adding the systematic early detection of TB using Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra, performed on NPAs and stool samples, to the WHO SOC for children with severe pneumonia, followed by immediate initiation of anti-TB treatment in children testing positive on any of the samples. TB-Speed Pneumonia is a multicentric, stepped wedge diagnostic trial conducted in six countries with high TB incidence: Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia and Cambodia.
This study will assess the efficacy of Pyramax administered for three-day, two-day or one day, in clearing a P. falciparum infection in asymptomatic carriers.
Tuberculosis (TB) has overtaken HIV as the leading infectious cause of death worldwide and requires a major policy shift for it to be controlled in line with the WHO Stop-TB goal to "end TB". However, how to control TB at population level in the context of HIV, is unknown. Some of the best evidence to date comes from the Southern African ZAMSTAR trial, where a household-level TB /HIV intervention including TB symptom screening, HIV counselling and testing with linkage to care and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) as indicated, was offered to all household members of TB patients. Despite only reaching ~6% of households in the intervention communities, the data showed a nearly 20% reduction in TB disease prevalence and 50% reduction in TB infection incidence at the population-level. Increasing the scope of the intervention to all households and thus all community members, may therefore significantly change the burden of TB and "end TB". The proposed TREATS project builds on the experience of ZAMSTAR and is nested within the ongoing HPTN 071 (PopART) trial (NCT01900977), the largest ever trial of a combination HIV/TB prevention intervention being conducted in Zambia and South Africa. The project consists of 4 linked studies that will provide definitive cluster-randomised evidence of the effect of a household-level combined HIV and TB prevention intervention on the burden of TB at population level. The project will produce two major outputs of global importance to public health policy. The first will provide definitive evidence of the effectiveness of scaled up combination TB/HIV prevention interventions on TB. The second output will improve understanding of the best ways to measure the impact of public health interventions on TB burden. This is a unique opportunity to assess the impact of combination HIV prevention, including universal HIV testing and treatment, combined with population screening for active TB on the burden of TB. The HPTN071(PopART) trial,a cluster randomised trial in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa with a population size of approximately 1 million individuals, is unlikely ever to be repeated. The recently adopted WHO guidelines of a "universal treatment" strategy for HIV, will prompt policy-makers to seek strategies of case-finding for HIV offering an opportunity to conduct TB screening on a large scale. The results from the TREATS project will therefore provide unique and timely information of the additional costs and benefits of combined TB and HIV prevention strategies at population level. TREATS will also assess novel methods to measure the effect of interventions on burden of TB in the trial communities. The latest interferon gamma release assay QuantiFERON® Gold Plus will be assessed for measuring impact of TB interventions on incidence of infection. A combination of Xpert® MTB/RIF and computer aided digital X-ray (CAD4TB) will be assessed for measuring prevalence of active TB. These new methods will provide important information about the best way of measuring TB incidence and prevalence rates and allow triangulation of the different methods to inform global estimates of TB burden in the post MDG era. The TREATS consortium will stimulate synergy between leading African research groups (Zambart, HST); new European technology (Delft Diagnostic Imaging, Qiagen); international TB bodies (The Union) and European research centres (LSHTM, Imperial College, Sheffield University and KNCV), as well as with the US funders of the HPTN071/PopART trial.
This study is a multi-centre interventional study at seven tertiary paediatric surgery centres in Ghana, Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania aimed at reducing mortality from gastroschisis.
The TAME study will evaluate four new approaches which will be compared against the standard care currently in use in the treatment of malnutrition enteropathy in children with severe acute malnutrition. A high pathogen burden causes damage to the intestinal mucosa which exacerbates nutritional impairment and leads to further susceptibility to infection and impaired epithelial regeneration. Enteropathy is characterised by multiple epithelial breaches, microbial translocation from gut lumen to systemic circulation and systemic inflammation.The trial will evaluate the potential impact of four interventions (colostrum, N-acetyl glucosamine, teduglutide, and budesonide) given for 14 days, which aim at mucosal restoration. The trial will determine if repairing damage to the small intestinal mucosa leads to the reduction of systemic inflammation and thus lessening the nutritional impairment, and so if this contributes to the reduction of mortality in children. In Zambia only, endoscopic biopsies and confocal laser endomicroscopy will be used to evaluate response and confirm safety at a mucosal level. Identifying an agent or agents which contribute most to mucosal healing will then ultimately lead to further large phase 3 trial in which the agent(s) will be further evaluated. The trial also anticipates to gain a more in depth understanding of pathophysiology and may identify where current management strategies of treating malnutrition enteropathy in children are failing.
Tuberculosis and HIV continue to be major public health problems in resource constrained settings like Zambia. Zambia is among the top 30 highest burden countries globally. The major drivers of TB in the Africa region is the HIV epidemic. Inadequate TB diagnostic tools with failure to make a timely diagnosis and start appropriate treatment are the major impediments to TB control in Zambia and globally.
The study is being conducted to evaluate and compare the immunogenicity of ROTAVAC® and ROTAVAC 5CM 28 days after the last dose of the vaccine, when administered to infants in a three-dose schedule at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. The study will also assess the reactogenicity of the vaccine 7 days after each vaccination and safety from first vaccination up to 4 weeks after the last vaccination with ROTAVAC® and ROTAVAC 5CM, and of Rotarix® when administered to infants in a two-dose schedule at 6 and 10 weeks of age.
Background: In developing countries, micronutrient deficiency in infants is associated with growth faltering, morbidity, and delayed motor development. One of the potentially low-cost and sustainable solutions is to use locally producible food for the home fortification of complementary foods. Objective: The objectives are to test the hypothesis that locally producible spirulina platensis supplementation would achieve the following: 1) increase infant physical growth; 2) reduce morbidity; and 3) improve motor development. Design: 501 Zambian infants are randomly assigned into a control (CON) group or a spirulina (SP) group. Children in the CON group (n=250) receive a soya-maize-based porridge for 12 months, whereas those in the SP group (n=251) receive the same food but with the addition of spirulina. The change in infants' anthropometric status, morbidity, and motor development over 12 months are assessed.