There are about 2422 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in South Africa. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of atezolizumab plus chemotherapy compared with placebo plus chemotherapy in patients with inoperable recurrent triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).
This clinical trial is being conducted to learn more about a potential treatment (valoctocogene roxaparvovec) for people with severe hemophilia A. This research study will test and confirm the safety and effectiveness of the 6E13 vg/kg dose of the study drug (valoctocogene roxaparvovec) that contains the correct gene to make Factor VIII so that the body can make its own Factor VIII that functions properly. Only one dose of valoctocogene roxaparvovec is being given in this study, and this dose has been previously studied in another clinical trial in patients with hemophilia A. This is a phase 3 study which is meant to show that the study drug is safe and works to help treat hemophilia A. The study will see if liver cells are able to make Factor VIII that functions properly after receiving this study drug. The study will also examine the effects that the study drug has on how much Factor VIII concentrates patients have to inject into their veins and on their bleeding episodes after the study drug has been administered. Finally, the study will see if and how the body responds to the study drug - for example, whether liver cells become inflamed or whether the body makes antibodies (something the immune system makes to protect itself against things like bacteria and viruses) against the vector or the new Factor VIII gene.
There are few data of paediatric peri-operative morbidity and mortality in South Africa. There is little information on the burden or profile of surgical disease in the paediatric population, the level of anaesthesia or surgical care (specialist versus non-specialist) for paediatric patients, the quality of peri-operative care or contributing factors to poor outcomes. In order to understand current paediatric peri-operative morbidity and mortality in South Africa, it is important to start obtaining these data. Risk factors can be identified and changes can be in implemented accordingly to improve future outcomes. The study will take place over fourteen-days. It is a South African national multi-centre prospective cohort study of paediatric patients (<16 years) undergoing surgery. The SAPSOS study (as was the South African Surgical Outcomes Study (SASOS) study) will be based on the methodology of the European Surgical Outcomes Study (EuSOS). This study has important public health implications for South Africa as surgery is now recognized internationally as an essential part of public health, yet still needs to be defined as a priority in South Africa. Policy-makers and healthcare providers need evidence to plan resource allocation in a way that will improve quality and outcomes. The data from SAPSOS and SASOS, would provide a platform for government and health care providers in South Africa to appropriately allocate funding, make policy decisions and plan future peri-operative healthcare in South Africa.
The ITREMA trial is an open-label randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which HIV-1 infected patients initiating first-line ART and already on first-line ART will be enrolled. Enrollment will continue until 600 patients have been randomized. Patients initiating ART will be randomized after six months of ART and patients already on ART will be randomized at 6 months after the last viral load measurement. Patients in both arms will receive study visits every three months for a total follow-up duration of 18 months after randomization to either of two study arms. The control arm will receive standard of care HIV-1 treatment monitoring during first-line ART in accordance with South African National Department of Health (NDoH) guidelines. The intervention arm will receive intensified treatment monitoring during first-line ART according to the treatment monitoring strategy under investigation.
TB is a global health problem and in South Africa rates as the second most important problem in terms of Burden of Disease. There are many reasons for this, among which are diagnostic difficulties, extended treatments, drug resistance and health care provision. This application is concerned with all these drivers and will focus activities on a clinic which provides basic care in a very deprived socio-economic area of greater Cape Town, South Africa. Patients studied in a routine but demanding environments are our focus as these clinics are representative of many areas where TB (and HIV) are found at high prevalence. If the constraints of working in such areas can be understood and appropriate changes that work made, the investigators believe the outputs and policy changes generated in this study will contribute to future success in other settings. The investigators wish to study the implementation of the Xpert®MTB/RIF (Xpert) and Xpert Ultra (Ultra) systems in situ using a randomised controlled trial design, as opposed to a remote site (central laboratory), to assess whether time to diagnosis can be improved using point of care (POC). The investigators wish to maximise this opportunity by collecting biological samples from a patient population experiencing a TB epidemic for the evaluation of future TB diagnostics. Using human DNA, the investigators will attempt to determine reasons for poor or no treatment response. Two possibilities exist for this: a) the M. tuberculosis strain is resistant to the drug in question or b) the patient is highly susceptible to the bacterium. The investigators will determine the exome sequences of study participants with susceptible M. tuberculosis strains who show poor or no response, and compare this with rapid responders. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, the investigators will also observe how the microbiome of TB patients is altered during TB treatment and how this is associated with treatment outcome, as well as after TB treatment. This project will set the foundation for the implementation of new POC TB diagnostic technologies in clinics in South Africa. The biobanked specimens collected can be rapidly utilised for nascent technologies. Studying the patient microbiome will provide insights into what makes some patients more susceptible to TB and what microbiological changes occur during the course of anti-TB treatment.
Title: Evaluation of host biomarker-based point-of-care tests for targeted screening for active TB (Screen TB) Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) places severe pressure on health care services of the developing world. Despite the introduction of the highly sensitive and specific GeneXpert MTB/RIF (GeneXpert) test  with a potential turn-around time of two hours, many people in high TB prevalence areas still do not have access to efficient TB diagnostic services due to logistical constraints in these settings. A cost effective, rapid, point-of-care screening test with high sensitivity would identify people with a high likelihood for active TB and would prioritize them for testing with more expensive, technically or logistically demanding assays including GeneXpert or liquid culture, facilitating cost-effective diagnostic work-up in resource-limited settings. A serum cytokine signature for active TB disease, discovered in the AE-TBC project, with a sensitivity of 89% (CI 78 - 95%) and specificity of 76% (CI 68 - 83%), will be optimised and utilized in a point-of-care format (TransDot) to rapidly test for TB disease in symptomatic people. Hypothesis: The TransDot test will achieve a sensitivity of > 90% for TB disease, in a training set of people suspected of having TB disease, and be validated (achieve similarly high sensitivity) subsequently in a prospective test set of people suspected of having TB disease, when compared to a composite gold standard of sputum culture, smear, GeneXpert, chest X-ray, TB symptoms and TB treatment response. Objectives: The overall objective of the study is to incorporate a six-marker serum signature into a multiplex UCP-LFA format, referred to as TransDot, for finger-prick blood testing. The end point of the study is the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the UCP-LFA TransDot test on finger-prick blood for active TB and will be prospectively compared against gold standard composite diagnostic criteria (GeneXpert, MGIT culture, TB sputum smear, CXR, TB symptom screen and response to TB treatment). Primary: The primary outcome of interest will be accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the TransDot finger-prick test when compared with the composite gold standard tests.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that injection cycles consisting of a single administration of paliperidone palmitate 6-month (PP6M) (700 or 1000 milligrams equivalent [mg eq.]) are not less effective than 2 sequentially administered injections of paliperidone palmitate 3-month PP3M) (350 or 525 mg eq.) for the prevention of relapse in participants with schizophrenia previously stabilized on corresponding doses of paliperidone palmitate 1-month (PP1M) (100 or 150 mg eq.) or PP3M (350 or 525 mg eq.).
This study will examine whether an adapted version of ]he Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) can be effective when delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in a poor urban community in South Africa. We will randomize existing groups that are part of an non-governmental organization's (NGO) chronic disease management program (anticipated cluster N = 54; anticipated individual N=540), to receive either the program or usual care (wait-list). The primary outcome analysis will compare percentage of baseline weight loss at Y1 between the program and usual care; however, after Y1 usual care participants will also receive the program and both groups will be followed for another year.
Treatment of increased ICP, using Anti-secretory Factor, in patients with severe head trauma Brain edema, defined as an increased fluid content in either the extracellular or intracellular space, arise in both trauma and in conjunction with other brain pathologies such as infectious diseases, intracranial tumors and ischemic events, i.e. stroke. The mechanisms underlying the formation of edema are not fully understood. In the injured brain, leakage over the blood brain-barrier arise which leads to transport of fluid from the blood to the extracellular space, causing an extracellular or vasogenic edema. Damage to cell membranes and disruption of cell function causes an intracellular or cytotoxic edema. Although one type of edema may predominate initially, one type most likely leads to another. In addition to the physiological, flow-related changes that arise, the edema is also worsened by the inflammatory response to damage. In the injured brain, disease associated molecular patterns (DAMP), and pro-inflammatory cytokines that can give rise to both intracellular and extracellular edema are released. If the edema becomes expansive enough to give rise to a significant increase in intracranial pressure the circulation of the brain is threatened and surgical intervention inevitable. The most common procedure is hemicraniectomy, a procedure intended to add more space for the edematous brain to expand. The procedure itself is risky, and re-operations due to hematoma, CSF-leakage and more are common. Furthermore, it is not known how the procedure itself affects the brain in terms of increased edema, tearing of the brain etc. Antisecretory factor, AF is a 41 kDa protein that exists in most mammals. It was first discovered due to its ability to inhibit experimental diarrhea. Endogenous AF secretion increases after exposure to bacterial toxins and an increase in AF secretion in combination with an inflammatory reaction may be a part of normal defense against the secretory and inflammatory component in diarrhea and other pathological processes involving membrane leakage and inflammation. AF has been shown to modulate pro-inflammatory and anti- inflammatory cytokine release. AF has also been shown to be effective against vertigo symptoms in Meniere's disease, which is believed to be caused by an abnormal collection of lymph around the balance nerve. AF and AF16 (the functional terminal 16 amino-acid peptide) have been tested in animal models of cerebral edema such as herpes encephalitis and traumatic brain injury with significant reduction of intracranial pressure, morbidity and mortality AF is commercially available for human use as Salovum®, an egg yolk powder B221® enriched for AF. It is available in pharmacies without prescription, but can also be prescribed as a dietary supplement in Sweden. Salovum® is classified as a "medical food" by the Swedish Pharmaceutical Agency and the European Union. Salovum® is currently registered in the Republic of South Africa. Hypothesis Cerebral edema in traumatic brain injury is caused by inflammation triggered by tissue damage. The anti-secretory and anti-inflammatory compound Salovum® has the potential to counteract this and thus reduce cerebral edema in traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the reduction of cerebral edema is hypothesized to decrease intracranial pressure, reduce the development of secondary brain damage and subsequently reduce treatment intensity levels and death. Aims and Objectives Though, the number of patients with severe traumatic head injury in Sweden is decreasing and the need for a larger, randomized trial in a centre with large volumes of traumatic brain injury is needed The primary focus for scientific investigation is to evaluate if AF given as a dietary supplement (Salovum®) will reduce 30-day mortality in adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The secondary aims are to investigate whether AF will reduce intracranial pressure and treatment intensity levels - TIL, during intervention. Methodology The outlined study is a phase-2, prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. After inclusion patients will be randomized to active Salovum® or placebo egg powder treatment every 4th hour during 5 days. Treatment of patients will be according to current algorithms at the study site. Study population 100 adult (age 18+) patients with severe traumatic brain injury, where ICP-monitoring is deemed necessary, will be included in the study. Patient samples A venous whole blood sample will be drawn before and after treatment in all patients. The blood sample will be frozen and stored at the study site for further analysis. Anticipated benefits In an ongoing Swedish study, preliminary results indicate that AF has a very potent ICP- lowering effect in patients with severe TBI and other pathologies encompassing cerebral edema, which might prove an effect on 30-day mortality in this trial.
An observational study of long-term outcomes of HIV-1 infection in persons who become infected after enrollment in HIV-1 vaccine trials