There are about 8 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Lao People's Democratic Republic. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
More than one billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH, A. lumbricoides, hookworm or Trichuris trichiura). Preventive chemotherapy - i.e. annual or biannual treatment of at-risk populations with albendazole or mebendazole is the current strategy against STH. However, the efficacy of both drugs is only moderate against hookworm and low against T. trichiura. For increasing the efficacy and to avoid drug resistance, new drugs or the combination of different drugs is the way forward. In this randomised controlled trial, we assess the efficacy (based on cure rates) of different drug combinations in school-aged children in Lao. 420 hookworm positive children will be treated: 140 with albendazole-oxantel pamoate, 140 with albendazole-pyrantel pamoate-oxantel pamoate treatment arms, 70 with pyrantel pamoate-oxantel pamoate and 70 with mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate-oxantel pamoate. Two stool samples will be collected at baseline and follow-up (14-21 days after treatment) and analysed with Kato-Katz.
This study aims to determine whether a 14 day course of 0.5 mg/kg/day primaquine can eliminate subclinical P. vivax infections detected by high volume ultra-sensitive PCR (uPCR).
This study is an open-label randomised trial comparing standard ACT treatment with matching triple artemisinin-based combination therapies (TACTs), evaluating efficacy in safety and tolerability. The estimated total sample size is 2040 patients from 16 sites in Asia and 1 site in Africa. There are 2 arm study groups that have 2 treatment arms each. Study group A: A.1: Artemether-lumefantrine for 3 days. versus: A.2: Artemether-lumefantrine for 3 days plus Amodiaquine for 3 days. Study group B: B.1: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for 3 days. versus: B.2: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for 3 days plus Mefloquine hydrochloride for 3 days. Study group C: C.1: Artesunate-mefloquine for 3 days versus: C.2: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for 3 days plus Mefloquine hydrochloride for 3 days. According to the WHO guideline, all patients except for children under the age of 1 year or a weight below 10 kilograms will also be treated with a single dose of low dose primaquine.
The study will be conducted as a community-based, randomized, placebo-controlled, trial with four study groups. The overall objective of the study is to determine the optimal method for delivering zinc to young children, both for the prevention of zinc deficiency and treatment of diarrhea. In particular, the investigators plan to compare the impact on physical growth, morbidity, micronutrient status, immune function, environmental enteric dysfunction, parasite burden and hair cortisol concentration of: 1) daily preventive zinc supplementation as a micronutrient powder (MNP); 2) placebo powders; 3) daily preventive zinc supplementation as dispersible tablets; 4) therapeutic zinc supplementation as dispersible tablets given in relation to episodes of diarrhea. In addition to the major outcomes mentioned above, the investigators will monitor adherence to the interventions, neuro-behavioral development, and the occurrence of any adverse events.
Introduction. Comprehensive data on infective endocarditis in developing countries are scarce. Objectives: Description of the characteristics (clinical and microbiological) and assessment of the outcomes of infective endocarditis in low-income countries. Methods : Prospective, Observational, Multicentre study. Inclusion criteria: patients aged over 1 year fulfilling the modified Duke criteria for infective endocarditis. Exclusion criteria: patient included during a previous infective endocarditis episode. Outcomes measures: Mortality at 6 months follow-up; mortality at 1 month follow-up; access to antibiotic treatment (modalities and duration), hospital length of stay and reason for discharge, and cardiac surgery when indicated. Duration: One year (June 2014- June 2015)
The overall aim of this study is two fold: 1. to pilot targeted chemo-elimination of plasmodium falciparum malaria in known areas of artemisinin resistance in South East Asia. 2. to understand the micro-epidemiology of malaria in these areas; chiefly, the prevalence and importance to on-going transmission of sub-clinical p.f malaria infections.
Because the artemisinins are the most potent antimalarial drugs, the reduction in parasite numbers is rapid. Therefore, early measures of reducing parasite counts are needed. This study will look at conventional markers of parasite reduction e.g. parasite clearance time, parasite reduction ratio, and the time to achieve a fall of 50%, 90% and 99% of the pre-treatment parasitaemia. Defining artemisinin resistance requires the use of artesunate (AS) alone because it is now appreciated that the partner drug in a combination treatment has a significant impact on the rate of parasite clearance. This study will dose patients for 3 days with AS alone (or longer until parasites clear) and measure the parasite count frequently in order to be able to define an accurate regression line of a graph of the natural logarithm of the parasite count (Y axis) versus time (X axis). This will be followed by a full course of an artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). Two different dose regimens of artesunate will be compared at all sites except those in western Cambodia, as unpublished observations from the Thai-Myanmar border suggest the standard lower daily dose of 2mg/kg may enable the earlier detection of low level resistance than a 4mg/kg daily dose.
Rural communities involved in agriculture are often at highest risk of insect-borne diseases in Southeast (SE) Asia. Skin-applied insect repellents may prove a useful means of reducing mosquito-borne diseases for those people working outdoors in high risk areas. This trial is evaluating the use of insect repellent (20% diethyltoluamide) to reduce incidence of malaria, Japanese Encephalitis and Dengue. The investigators will recruit up to 1000 households from 100 villages in rural Laos. In each house the investigators shall recruit up to 5 individuals. Half of households will be randomised to repellent, half to a placebo. All individuals will be provided with insecticide treated bed nets for use at night. All household occupants will be followed for 7 months to record malaria cases by Rapid Diagnostic Test every month. Blood spots will be collected at start and end of study to measure Japanese Encephalitis and Dengue. All positive cases will be promptly treated. Outcome will be reduction in number of malaria cases (primary outcome) and Dengue/Japanese Encephalitis (secondary outcomes).