There are about 69 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Gambia. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infants receive a single dose of the meningococcal serogroup A-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, when they reach at least 9 months of age. However, this leaves a window of susceptibility in early life when the incidence of invasive serogroup A disease, and the case fatality rate for the condition is at its highest. This study will investigate the potential role of administering the vaccine to expectant mothers at the start of the third trimester of pregnancy in order to protect their subsequent borne infants. Antibody transfer to the newborn and subsequent antibody decay will be measured. The level of protection against neonatal tetanus provided by the tetanus toxoid component of the vaccine, when compared to the routine dose of tetanus administered in pregnancy will also be assessed. As a separate exploratory study, the follow-up of the cohort planned will also be used to investigate the effects that the development of the gastrointestinal microbiome, and any perturbations in the microbiome caused by antibiotic use, have on immune development and vaccine immunogenicity over the first 10 months of life.
Currently, there are two types of vaccines available against pertussis (whooping cough), an infectious disease of the respiratory tract that can be extremely serious in very young children. Both have advantages and disadvantages: The acellular form (aP, mainly used in resource-rich countries) does not appear to offer as long lasting protection, but the whole cell vaccine (wP, mainly used in LMIC) appears to be generally more reactogenic. There is consensus that a "better pertussis vaccine" ought to be designed. The GaPs trial is part of a series of clinical trials performed by the PERtussIS COrrelates of Protection Europe (PERISCOPE) Consortium, an EU-funded group of investigators which aims to generate knowledge on immune responses to pertussis. A better understanding of human biomarkers of protective immune responses to B. pertussis and its waning immunity is needed to accelerate the design and testing of new pertussis vaccines with a longer duration of protection. This proposal describes the design and objectives of the clinical trial to be conducted in the Gambia, which is the only site in Africa involved in the consortium and involves the recruitment of 600 mother/infant pairs. Pregnant women will be randomised to receive either the usually recommended tetanus vaccination or a combination vaccine against whooping cough, diptheria, tetanus and polio. Their infants will receive either aP or wP as part of their EPI vaccines, and resulting immune responses will be characterized in detail up to the age of 9 months. The investigators will use immunological assays to investigate the functional humoral and cellular responses to pertussis in infants born to mothers who are randomized to receiving pertussis vaccine in pregnancy or not, and their infants who will receive either aP or wP vaccine. Our research questions are: Does vaccination against pertussis in pregnancy have impact on subsequent immune responses to pertussis vaccine and other EPI vaccines in the infants Does vaccination of infants with wP vaccine induce different levels and functionality of antibody and/or T cell responses than vaccination with aP vaccine What is the difference in innate and acquired immunity- as measured with novel systems vaccinology tools- between being vaccinated with wP versus aP?
This is a community-based cluster-randomized trial in which a novel approach to interrupt residual malaria transmission by mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (IVM) combined with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) will be tested. This cluster-randomized trial will involve 32 villages in the Upper River Region of The Gambia that will be randomized to MDA with IVM and DP or to standard of care in a ratio 1:1. This trial aims at establishing whether MDA with IVM and DP can reduce or interrupt malaria transmission in medium to low transmission settings by reducing vector survival and the human reservoir of infection. MDA with IVM and DP will be implemented in the intervention villages and all human settlements in the buffer zone, with the aim of minimizing spillover effects. Control clusters will receive standard malaria control interventions as implemented by the National Malaria Control Program. The primary outcomes will be the prevalence of malaria infection determined by molecular methods in all age groups at the peak of the second transmission season (November-December 2019) and the vector's parous rate 7-14 days after MDA.
The mortality effect of kangaroo mother care in stable newborns <2000g is well established but mortality effect in unstable newborns is not conclusively known. This pragmatic clinical trial aims to investigate the mortality and clinical effects of early continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) compared to standard care in mild-moderately unstable neonates <2000g in a resource limited hospital setting.
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is an important tool for the assessment of the efficacy of novel malaria vaccines and drugs prior to field trials. CHMI also allows for the evaluation of immunity to malaria and parasite growth rates in vivo and thus allows for the assessment of the natural acquisition and loss of malaria immunity. This may be particularly useful in individuals from endemic areas with changing levels of exposure and immunity to malaria. Thus, CHMI in individuals with prior exposure to malaria could be a valuable tool to accelerate malaria vaccine development and inform malaria control programs of changing immunity levels and related disease presentations. In this trial, the investigators intend to study the effect of pre-exposure to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) on parasite kinetics, clinical symptoms and immunity after CHMI by PfSPZ Challenge in Gambian adults. Based on a well-defined sero-profile representing the extremes of current malaria exposure in The Gambia, two cohorts will be identified to study the impact of naturally acquired immunity on susceptibility for a Controlled Human Malaria Infection.
This micronutrient supplementation study is a 3-arm randomized controlled trial, unblinded, with 125 women per arm. Non-pregnant, non-lactating healthy women of reproductive age in West Kiang, The Gambia, will be randomized to 12 weeks of daily supplementation of either a) novel micronutrient supplement, b) a United Nations International Multiple Micronutrient Preparation (UNIMMAP) tablet or c) no intervention (control). The novel micronutrient supplement is a drink powder providing 800 µg folic acid, 5.2 µg cyanocobalamin (B12), 2.8 mg Riboflavin-5'-phosphate (B2), and 4g trimethylglycine (betaine). UNIMMAP contains 15 micronutrients at the Recommended Daily Allowance level. The aim is to test the effectiveness of the supplements on correcting micronutrient deficiencies in the dry season and to reduce homocysteine levels. The hypothesis is that the new drink powder will be the most effective supplement, causing a reduction in 1 µmol/L compared to the control group after supplementation. The supplements will be supplied to participants on a daily basis by Community-based Birth Attendants (CBCs). The CBCs will observe consumption of the supplement. The novel micronutrient supplement will be provided in powder form with instructions to dissolve one sachet in a cup of 200ml water. UNIMMAP will be provided in capsule form to be taken with water. Women will provide one 10ml fasted venous blood sample at baseline and another after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation. At each time point they will also have their blood pressure and anthropometry assessed and provide a urine pregnancy test. Correcting micronutrient deficiencies is extremely important for the long-term health of women, and in particular around the time of conception and throughout pregnancy since micronutrients are needed for the proper physical and cognitive development of the baby. Certain micronutrients are required for adding a methyl group to places on DNA ('DNA methylation'). The pattern of these methyl groups can help determine whether a gene is switched on or off. Correct functioning of DNA methylation processes is therefore of critical importance for fetal development. High levels of homocysteine can impede DNA methylation, therefore supplements that reduce homocysteine may not only be beneficial for the mother but also for the developing child. The most effective supplement in this trial will be considered for testing in larger pregnancy trials.
The motivation for this study was produced from our preliminary data, which showed that during the first 96 hours of life a full-term neonate will actively reduce the overall serum iron concentration of their blood and the transferrin saturation decreases rapidly from 45% in cord blood to ~20% by six hours post-delivery. The Investigators hypothesise that this active sequestration of iron, which results in hypoferremia, is done in an effort to limit susceptibility to infection, a process referred to as nutritional immunity. Currently, little is known about iron regulation and iron homeostasis during the first week of life and even less is known about the comparisons of nutritional immunity between full term, preterm and low birth weight neonates. Additionally, limited research has been conducted on the impact of these processes on bacterial pathogens. In an effort to study the neonatal nutritional immunity and its role in neonatal susceptibility to infection, The investigator will conduct an observational study in full-term, preterm and low birth weight vaginally-delivered neonates born at Serrekunda General Hospital, The Gambia. The investigators will fully characterise and quantify nutritional immunity during the early neonatal period and the investogators will assess how this impacts bacterial growth. Study sensitisation will occur at the antenatal clinic, during the mother's second trimester of pregnancy. Mothers will be consented and enrolled at delivery. Blood samples will be collected once from the umbilical cord and at serial time points from the neonates over the first week of life.
Title: Evaluation of host biomarker-based point-of-care tests for targeted screening for active TB (Screen TB) Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) places severe pressure on health care services of the developing world. Despite the introduction of the highly sensitive and specific GeneXpert MTB/RIF (GeneXpert) test  with a potential turn-around time of two hours, many people in high TB prevalence areas still do not have access to efficient TB diagnostic services due to logistical constraints in these settings. A cost effective, rapid, point-of-care screening test with high sensitivity would identify people with a high likelihood for active TB and would prioritize them for testing with more expensive, technically or logistically demanding assays including GeneXpert or liquid culture, facilitating cost-effective diagnostic work-up in resource-limited settings. A serum cytokine signature for active TB disease, discovered in the AE-TBC project, with a sensitivity of 89% (CI 78 - 95%) and specificity of 76% (CI 68 - 83%), will be optimised and utilized in a point-of-care format (TransDot) to rapidly test for TB disease in symptomatic people. Hypothesis: The TransDot test will achieve a sensitivity of > 90% for TB disease, in a training set of people suspected of having TB disease, and be validated (achieve similarly high sensitivity) subsequently in a prospective test set of people suspected of having TB disease, when compared to a composite gold standard of sputum culture, smear, GeneXpert, chest X-ray, TB symptoms and TB treatment response. Objectives: The overall objective of the study is to incorporate a six-marker serum signature into a multiplex UCP-LFA format, referred to as TransDot, for finger-prick blood testing. The end point of the study is the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the UCP-LFA TransDot test on finger-prick blood for active TB and will be prospectively compared against gold standard composite diagnostic criteria (GeneXpert, MGIT culture, TB sputum smear, CXR, TB symptom screen and response to TB treatment). Primary: The primary outcome of interest will be accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the TransDot finger-prick test when compared with the composite gold standard tests.
Anaemia continues to be one of the most common health problems affecting children and pregnant women in low-income countries. Nutritional iron deficiency is believed to be the main driver of anaemia, so mass iron supplementation and food fortification programs have been recommended by most public health organizations. However, these interventions are frequently ineffective and new strategies are desperately needed. Both anaemia and iron absorption are influenced by multiple factors, including nutritional status, infection, low grade inflammation and host genetics. The discovery of hepcidin, the master regulator of iron absorption and regulation has opened new avenues for investigation. Genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within hepcidin regulatory genes that are associated with altered iron status both in African populations. The study aims to investigate the impact of genetic alterations in hepcidin regulation on oral iron absorption. A recall-by-genotype study will be conducted using an existing database of pre-genotype individuals in rural Gambia (West Kiang). This database comprise of data on >3000 Gambians, with Illumina HumanExome array data on 80K directly genotyped putative functional variants as well as imputation data on 20M variants.
The primary purpose of the proposed research is to establish Reference Values (RVs) for micronutrients (MN) and macronutrients in human milk. The investigators' research to date has revealed highly variable milk MN concentrations among populations, and very low values in some low income countries (LICs) likely caused by poor maternal status and/or diet but RVs are needed to interpret these values. During the past year the investigators conducted a review of human milk nutrient composition, and formed a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) which developed the current proposal. Here, the investigators are conducting a longitudinal project on well-nourished women and infants. The Mothers, Infants and Lactation Quality (MILQ) study is a multi-center cohort project, investigating breast milk nutrient composition in well-nourished women across the first 8.5 months of lactation in four different populations. The countries involved are Denmark, Brazil, Bangladesh and The Gambia. Exclusive breastfeeding is an eligibility criterion up until the second post-partum study visit (between 1 - 3.4 months postpartum), with the exception of the first week after delivery. Other data collected on mothers and infants, including maternal and infant nutrient intake and status, morbidity, milk volume, and infant development, will inform interpretation and support application of the results. While the priority is to develop RVs for MN, other analyses will include human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and proteins, and free amino acids (FAA) in infant plasma. Thus, with the samples obtained the investigators will perform (a) laboratory analyses of milk, plasma and urine nutrients to construct RVs for global application, (b) analyses of HMOs and proteins in milk, and (c) metabolomic analysis of FAA and other metabolites in infant plasma. By request of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), colostrum and fecal microbiota samples will also be collected and stored for later analyses.