There are about 111 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Ethiopia. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
To assess the impact of soil iron intake from teff flour on iron status in infants in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.
Mothers and young children in rural Ethiopia lack sufficient nutrition, and a compounding factor is presence of high levels of fluoride (> 5-10 mg/day) affecting body functions. Interventions involving chickens to provide eggs and eggshell (a source of calcium) are one solution. The overall purpose is to examine how increasing dietary calcium by using eggshell powder (ESP) reduces fluoride (F) absorption. It is known calcium binds F to prevent its absorption but application of this to a community based study has not been tested. The hypothesis is that providing chickens to produce eggs (egg and eggshell) for young children and ESP to women will improve function without affecting iron and zinc status. Blood, urine samples will be tested in a subsample for F, calcium, zinc and iron; and breastmilk for F. Hemoglobin will be measured as an indicator of overall nutritional status. Nutritional status of young children (6-18 mo) and of their mothers prior and after the intervention (by 6 months) will be assessed. A further 6 months will be monitoring for continued use of egg and ESP, at which time the control group will receive chickens. The study will take place in the Rift valley of Southern Ethiopia. Identification of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of mothers on egg and ESP consumption will be done at baseline and at the end ("endline"). Caregivers will be instructed to give each child 1 egg (cooked) and 1/4 "bottle cap" of eggshell (500 mg calcium) per day in the intervention, and ¾ "bottle cap" of eggshell (1500 mg calcium) per day for themselves. Families receiving chickens will be instructed on cage construction. Throughout the study, any problems arising in keeping chickens will be recorded in order to assess the feasibility and practicality of raising chickens as way to mitigate fluorosis and improve nutritional status.
To conduct a sub-regional micronutrient survey (SRMNS) assessing the prevalence of vitamin A, Zn, and Fe status in the country
Title: Evaluation of host biomarker-based point-of-care tests for targeted screening for active TB (Screen TB) Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) places severe pressure on health care services of the developing world. Despite the introduction of the highly sensitive and specific GeneXpert MTB/RIF (GeneXpert) test  with a potential turn-around time of two hours, many people in high TB prevalence areas still do not have access to efficient TB diagnostic services due to logistical constraints in these settings. A cost effective, rapid, point-of-care screening test with high sensitivity would identify people with a high likelihood for active TB and would prioritize them for testing with more expensive, technically or logistically demanding assays including GeneXpert or liquid culture, facilitating cost-effective diagnostic work-up in resource-limited settings. A serum cytokine signature for active TB disease, discovered in the AE-TBC project, with a sensitivity of 89% (CI 78 - 95%) and specificity of 76% (CI 68 - 83%), will be optimised and utilized in a point-of-care format (TransDot) to rapidly test for TB disease in symptomatic people. Hypothesis: The TransDot test will achieve a sensitivity of > 90% for TB disease, in a training set of people suspected of having TB disease, and be validated (achieve similarly high sensitivity) subsequently in a prospective test set of people suspected of having TB disease, when compared to a composite gold standard of sputum culture, smear, GeneXpert, chest X-ray, TB symptoms and TB treatment response. Objectives: The overall objective of the study is to incorporate a six-marker serum signature into a multiplex UCP-LFA format, referred to as TransDot, for finger-prick blood testing. The end point of the study is the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the UCP-LFA TransDot test on finger-prick blood for active TB and will be prospectively compared against gold standard composite diagnostic criteria (GeneXpert, MGIT culture, TB sputum smear, CXR, TB symptom screen and response to TB treatment). Primary: The primary outcome of interest will be accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the TransDot finger-prick test when compared with the composite gold standard tests.
The investigators propose a cluster-randomized clinical trial to determine whether an intensive, targeted azithromycin distribution strategy is effective for elimination of trachoma at the kebele level compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of annual azithromycin distribution.
Women living in low-income countries are at elevated risk of death in connection to pregnancy, as well as infants born to women in such settings. It is probable that several factors are involved, such as poverty, lack of education and access to healthcare. Infectious diseases constitute important threats to maternal health in resource-limited settings. Tuberculosis (TB) is reported to be the third leading cause of maternal death globally. Furthermore, TB can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, with high risk of severe consequences for the infant. Despite these data, neither the role of TB in relation to co-existing risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, nor the mechanisms involved, are well understood. It is likely that TB interacts with other characteristics, in particular socio-economic condition and HIV infection, which could obscure associations between TB and pregnancy outcomes. For this reason, it is critical to design studies so that the independent role of TB can be deduced. This project aims to investigate how TB infection in women affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in relation to co-existing factors, and how exposure to TB infection may impact growth and development of infants born to women with TB. In addition, mechanisms in which TB and the immune system during pregnancy will be explored. The project is conducted at public health facilities in Ethiopia, where 2 000 women will be recruited during antenatal care. These women will be followed until 4 years after delivery, along with their offspring born during the study period. Detailed data is collected at inclusion and at study visits during follow-up, with submission of samples for TB testing and immunological analyses. Better knowledge on the characteristics of TB infection in association with pregnancy, and how TB affects maternal and child health, can be used to construct new guidelines for management of TB in women of fertile age. This may contribute to reductions in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and infant deaths.
Recent advances in molecular diagnostics of tuberculosis, especially the GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Rifampicin test have reduced the time to diagnose Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis (RR-TB) but only rifampicin resistance is diagnosed, leading to presumptive diagnosis of resistance to isoniazid and maybe other drugs. Thus in low and middle income countries, most drug sensitivity testing relies on phenotypic drug resistance testing, which takes up to 4 months. In addition, currently, culture on monthly sputum samples is recommended by the World Health Organization for follow-up of Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis patients under treatment. Unfortunately, culture is often not locally available and samples need to be transported from field to culture laboratories. The associated transport delays lead to high rates of contamination and false negative culture, particularly in laboratories in low resource settings. Many gaps for the diagnosis and management of RR-TB patients still need to be addressed and the DIAMA project (DIAgnostics for Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Africa) study aims to address some of them.
Cesarean section is one of the most common surgeries performed with the intention of optimizing maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. One of the major indications for cesarean delivery is "non-reassuring fetal status" (NRFS). Electronic fetal monitoring is used to evaluate and manage women while they are in labor. A fetal heart rate tracing is recorded on paper or electronically and produces a pattern to allow physicians to visually identify fetuses that are at risk for hypoxia and/or acidemia. This practice allows for prompt intervention via intrauterine resuscitation and expedited delivery if deemed necessary. National and international guidelines published by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology describe how fetal heart rate patterns obtained with electronic fetal monitoring should be interpreted and managed. In order to interpret fetal heart rate patterns, the ability to visualize a pattern is necessary. This is made possible either by using paper on which the fetal heart rate is recorded or electronic screens with recording systems. In hospitals where continuous fetal heart rate monitoring is available, but paper resources are depleted and electronic screens are not available, an image of the fetal heart rate pattern cannot be produced nor interpreted. Thus, electronic fetal monitoring is used as an incomplete tool has become standard of care for laboring patients. Historical Western data revealed that implementation of continuous fetal monitoring with pattern interpretation increased rates of cesarean delivery in comparison to intermittent auscultation. However, it is not clear if the inability to interpret a pattern (because of a lack of paper or electronic recording) results in increased or decreased cesarean rates in comparison to pattern interpretation. It is possible that the implementation of pattern interpretation could decrease cesarean delivery rates allowing increased or earlier opportunity for fetal resuscitation for patients with tracing abnormalities which may avert cesarean delivery. The investigators' aim is to assess cesarean delivery rates using electronic fetal monitoring with versus without pattern interpretation in a hospital in a low-middle income country where resources are lacking. If a decrease in cesarean delivery rate is observed and/or neonatal outcomes are improved, this study may serve as an impetus to encourage electronic fetal monitoring paper-producing companies to subsidize or donate supplies to hospitals in developing countries. Ensuring that fetal status is in fact non-reassuring by fetal heart rate pattern interpretation prior to proceeding with cesarean delivery may decrease the cesarean delivery rate while not compromising fetal outcomes.
This observational study will examine the safety and efficacy of bedaquiline and delamanid used (individually, not together) in routine, multidrug regimens for treatment of MDR-TB. The information gathered in this study will inform doctors how best to use these TB drugs in the future.
This study investigates the association between locally consumed food items with anemia among pregnant women, in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia.