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NCT ID: NCT01746199 Not yet recruiting - HIV Infection Clinical Trials

Efficacy of Antifolates Against Malaria in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and the Emergence of Induced Resistance in Plasmodium Falciparum

MACOMBA
Start date: December 2013
Phase: Phase 3
Study type: Interventional

Given the resistance emergence of malaria in pregnant women receiving intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) and the burden of this infection among pregnant women infected by HIV it is urgent to seek a more effective alternative treatment to optimize the prevention of malaria. Cotrimoxazole (CTM), actually administered daily as a prophylactic mean to opportunistic infections for HIV infected patients, showed encouraging results in preventing malaria in pregnant women. However, these results must be confirmed by randomized trials, particularly in pregnant women. The main objective of this clinical trial is to compare the efficacy of cotrimoxazole (CTM), administered once daily with IPT-SP (3 curative doses spaced one month) on placental parasitaemia in pregnant women infected with HIV and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) > 350 cells/mm3. The main hypothesis is based on the premise that cotrimoxazole is more effective than IPT-SP for placental parasitaemia. This might be due to the higher plasma concentration of cotrimoxazole attained with daily doses. If this hypothesis is proven, cotrimoxazole could be recommended as prophylaxis for HIV-positive pregnant women, whatever their CD4+ cell count. In this study, the investigators will also test the hypothesis that the strains of Plasmodium falciparum isolated from HIV-positive pregnant women express more dhfr and dhps resistance markers.

NCT ID: NCT01685827 Active, not recruiting - Sleeping Sickness Clinical Trials

Pivotal Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis in Stage 2

Start date: November 2012
Phase: Phase 2/Phase 3
Study type: Interventional

This clinical trial is designed to prove the efficacy and safety of Fexinidazole as an oral treatment for human african trypanosomiasis in advanced stage. The Fexinidazole is compared to reference treatment NECT. The trial will try to demonstrate that Fexinidazole is not inferior to NECT treatment.

NCT ID: NCT00342225 Completed - Behavior Clinical Trials

Mother-Child Relationships During Pregnancy Among Bofi Foragers

Start date: December 19, 2002
Phase: N/A
Study type: Observational

This study will examine changes in mother-child relationships when mothers are pregnant, because this period may involve conflicts between mothers and children. A widely held evolutionary theory postulates that because parents and offspring share only about 50 percent of their genes, conflicts occur and would most likely occur at times when parental investment decreases. Offspring benefit from obtaining maximal parental investment and may demand more investment than parents are willing to give at times, perhaps because the parent would better benefit from directing their energy to other pursuits, such as to other offspring or to work. This study will explore the following: - How pregnant mothers treat their children, in terms of caregiving techniques; - Whether mothers exhibit different caregiving patterns at different stages of pregnancy; - Whether mother-child conflicts arise during pregnancy, and, if so, when during pregnancy they are most likely to occur; and; - Whether offspring overtly resist changes in maternal behavior during pregnancy, and, if so, what behaviors children use to resist these changes. All pregnant Bofi forager women living in settlements near the villages of Ngotto, Poutem, Bambondji, and Grima (in the Central African Republic) who have one or more living offspring and have no serious health problems related to pregnancy may be eligible for this study. Bofi foragers are among the few remaining hunters and gatherers and, as such, offer an opportunity to examine child developmental theories that have been well studied among industrialized Euro-American cultures, but neglected cross-culturally. Furthermore, studies among contemporary hunter-gatherers provide insight into the evolutionary past of humans, as humans have lived as hunter-gatherers for about 99 percent of prehistory. Participating pregnant Bofi forager women will be interviewed for demographic information, family genealogy, fertility history, and parenting beliefs. The women and their children will be observed for 4 hours on two different days as they carry out their normal daily activities. Attention will be paid to the mother's investment in terms of direct care of the children, including behaviors such as holding, cleaning, comforting, grooming, and feeding children.

NCT ID: NCT00340769 Completed - Clinical trials for Zinc Fingers Proteins

Prevalence of a Non-Expressing 11B Mutation in Aka Peoples of the Central African Republic

Start date: April 18, 2001
Phase: N/A
Study type: Observational

The CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins are members of a small family of proteins that regulate the stability of certain types of mRNA containing so-called class II AU-rich elements in their 3'-untranslated regions. The best studied member of this protein family, tristetraprolin (TTP), exerts this destabilizing effect on at least two mRNAs coding for physiologically and medically important cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor. The physiological functions of the other two members of this protein family in mammals, 11B and 11D, are not known, but in experimental transfection studies they too can destabilize mRNAs containing this type of AU-rich element. As part of the Environmental Genome Project, we resequenced the protein coding portions of the human genes encoding these three proteins, and uncovered a dinucleotide splice site mutation in the 11B gene in one of 144 alleles sequenced. We showed that this mutation created a novel restriction fragment length polymorphism, and that this mutation resulted in the failure of splicing and expression of the mRNA encoded by the mutant allele. Based on our previous data with mice completely deficient in TTP, we anticipate that complete deficiency of this protein, and possibly its partial deficiency, would result in human disease. The mutant allele was from an anonymous adult Aka Pygmy women from the Central African Republic. We propose to genotype up to 1000 members of this ethnic group after obtaining buccal cell DNA from them. This will give us an approximate idea of the prevalence of this mutation in this population. If the mutation is found in a significant number of living individuals in this initial screen, then we will propose a later study of the individuals who have this genotype and their families. This second study, which will be reviewed separately, will attempt to correlate this genotype with a human trait or phenotype and possible y treatable human disease.

NCT ID: NCT00158483 Completed - Ulcer Clinical Trials

Anti-Herpetic Treatment of Genital Ulcer : Effect on HIV & Herpes Shedding (ANRS 1212)

Start date: May 2003
Phase: Phase 2
Study type: Interventional

Herpes virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection - as a cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission - can be targeted by anti-herpetic specific drugs, either as a continuous prophylactic treatment during its asymptomatic shedding phase, or as an episodic treatment during clinically-apparent genital ulcerations. The main objective of this trial will be to demonstrate that acyclovir treatment given during clinical episodes (primary infection or recurrences) can reduce genital shedding of HIV, thereby contributing to a reduction of HIV infectiousness of dually infected individuals (HIV+/HSV+).