There are about 65 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Botswana. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Aims of the Study: To assess feasibility and acceptability of introducing HPV testing of self-collected vaginal specimens (self-collection for HPV) of women age 30-49 years, followed by visual assessment of the cervix for treatment (VAT) and treatment of women testing HPV positive at a district hospital, surrounding clinics and communities in Botswana. Background and Rationale: High HIV prevalence correlates with high rates of precancerous and cancerous changes on the cervix, and Botswana has the third highest HIV prevalence rate (22.2%) in the world. In Botswana, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women. While the Government of Botswana has made cervical cancer a public health priority, and has provided cytology-based screening (Pap smears) for the past 20 years and in recent years began also offering VIA coupled with immediate cryotherapy for eligible precancerous lesions in a screen-and-treat (S&T) approach, the program still encounters multiple challenges. These include delays in reporting/receiving cytology results, referral bottlenecks for specialist care, and ultimately far fewer women being screened and treated than set targets. In response, in 2012 Botswana's Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) developed a National Cervical Cancer Prevention Programme (NCCPP) Comprehensive Prevention and Control Strategy that includes implementing a demonstration project to gauge acceptability and obtain lessons that will be used in planning the roll-out of this screening method. As a result, the MoHW is exploring human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as a primary screening method with the future service delivery in mind through HPV testing, specifically using self-collected samples, as a primary screening method. HPV testing is more sensitive and reliable for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer than Pap testing and VIA. This increased sensitivity translates into two important benefits: 1) earlier detection of significant precancerous lesions that if treated results in a ~50% reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer within 4-5 years compared to Pap testing and 50% reduction in related deaths within 8 years compared to Pap testing and VIA and 2) lower cancer risk for many years for those with a negative result, which permits screening at an extended interval of 5-10 years. The Xpert HPV test, which will be used in this study, has high sensitivity (100%) and relatively high specificity (81.5%) for CIN. HPV tests run on the GeneXpert® machine allow multiple tests (four in the model to be used in this study) to be run in an hour.
The primary aim is to assess if etonogestrel (ENG) implant users taking dolutegravir (DTG) have a 20% or greater change in their ENG plasma levels, compared to women taking no antiretroviral therapy (ART). A secondary aim is to assess whether ENG implant users taking dolutegravir have significantly higher ENG plasma levels than ENG implant users taking efavirenz. This is a cross-sectional, non-randomized evaluation to compare ENG levels between 3 and 12 months post-implant insertion in three groups of women: 1) women using DTG-based ART (n=90), 2) women using EFV-based ART (n=90), and 3) women using no ART (not HIV infected) (n=90). This study will be conducted in Botswana in Southern Africa among women using the ENG implant, and involves a one-time collection of blood and questionnaire.
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Botswana. The burden of cervical cancer is largely related to the high prevalence of HIV in Botswana (22%), as HIV is known to be a significant risk factor for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening is life-saving and has been shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence in multiple settings. Yet, there is no consensus on appropriate screening algorithms for women living with HIV, across resource settings. Botswana is in a unique position, relative to its neighbors in Sub-Saharan Africa, in that there exists capacity for advanced screening modalities, including primary high risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) testing and cytology-based screening. To address this issue, this study seeks to evaluate two-stage cervical cancer screening algorithms for HIV-positive women in Botswana using hrHPV testing. The two protocols include hrHPV testing followed by Pap Smear evaluation and hrHPV testing followed by VIA. The evidence generated will be critical to guiding cervical cancer screening in HIV-infected women across resource settings.
A number of rapid panel-based molecular assays for direct organism identification and resistance characterization in positive blood culture bottles are now commercially available. They have been shown to improve accuracy and decrease the time-to-result, allowing targeted treatment in hospitalized patients with bacteraemia, in high-income countries (HICs). However, these molecular assays are add-on tests performed in addition to conventional testing, increasing the complexity of diagnostic algorithms and costs of patient care. Conventional organism identification includes performing a Gram stain, biochemical identification and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The FilmArray Blood Culture Identification (BioFire, USA) is an example of a rapid panel-based molecular assay that combines nesting and multiplexing of PCR (nested multiplex PCR) to detect multiple pathogens simultaneously. There are limited data on how such tests impact patient management, health care costs and how they can better be incorporated into diagnostic algorithms. The aim of this study is to assess the added value and acceptability of a multiplexed molecular diagnostic assay in the identification of pathogens in patients presenting with bacteremia at hospitals in LMICs, and to assess health care providers' satisfaction with the assay.
The goal of this pilot study is to assess both implementation outcomes (acceptability, feasibility and adoption) and clinical efficacy (contraceptive method uptake by women wishing to avoid pregnancy) using a Hybrid Type 2 study design of a family planning program being piloted by the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Gabarone, Botswana.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and antiviral activity of VRC01 in HIV-1-infected infants beginning combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of the long-acting injectable agent cabotegravir (CAB LA) compared to daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-uninfected women.
This study will evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of the anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug delamanid (DLM) in combination with an optimized multidrug background regimen (OBR) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with MDR-TB.
The purpose of this study is to assess the early longitudinal metabolic effects including insulin sensitivity in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children; as well as to determine differences in the effects of neonatal zidovudine (AZT) vs. nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis on early longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity in the first 3 years of life.
The purpose of this study is to compare the virologic efficacy and safety of three antiretroviral (ARV) regimens in HIV-1-infected pregnant women and to compare the safety of these regimens for their infants.