There are about 290 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Bangladesh. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Treatment failure of Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) leads to marked functional disability, higher rates of morbidity, mortality and poor quality of life. In TB endemic countries effective and safe drugs are to be in hand to manage this group of patients. The aim of this study will be to evaluation the risk of tuberculosis and other infections in refractory SpA patients treated with tofacitinib. After having consent 174 adults will be enrolled. Follow up period will be 9 months (visits 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9). Study subjects (87) will receive tofacitinib (5 mg 12 hourly). Control patients will get etanercept (50 mg subcutaneously every 7 days interval for 1st month then 50 mg in 15 days interval for 2nd month then 50 mg every 21 days interval till final visit. Treatment efficacy assessment tool will be BASDAI, ASDAS-ESR, ASDAS-CRP and ASQoL for quality of life. Occurrences of tuberculosis and serious infection will be the primary end point of this study. The quantitative variables like ESR, CRP, BASDAI, ASDAS-ESR, ASDAS-CRP and ASQoL scores will be computed as mean and SD. Occurrences of TB and infection will be expressed in number and percentage. In between groups according to data distribution, students't test or ManWhitny U test will be done. The P value <0.05 will be considered significant. Each patient will enjoy every right to participate or refuse or even withdraw from the study at any point of time. Anonymity and data confidentiality will be maintained strictly. Ethical clearance will be obtained from Institutional Review Board (IRB) of BSMMU. The expected utility of this study will be; a) reporting on occurrence of TB and other infections in SpA patients with tofacitinib and etanercept, b) if identified safe and effective physician can use the agents without fear, c) for dose spacing of etanercept the cumulative dose will be low might make the drug affordable and also reduce the risk of TB and other infections, d) for spaced follow up schedule there will be minimized physician visit, lab testing etc.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer world-wide. It is particularly prevalent in Asia, and its occurrence is highest in areas where hepatitis B is prevalent, indicating a possible causal relationship. Follow up of high-risk populations such as chronic hepatitis patients and early diagnosis of transitions from chronic hepatitis to HCC would improve cure rates. In most cases HCC is detected late resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study is to develop and test non-invasive biomarkers based on methylation changes in PBMC, T-cells and circulated tumor DNA in hepatocellular carcinomas patients.
INTRODUCTION In 2014, 50 million children under 5 suffered from acute malnutrition, of which 16 million suffered from SAM, most of them living in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. SAM children have higher risk of mortality (relative risk between 5 and 20). It is an underlying factor in over 50% of the 10 - 11 million preventable deaths per year among children under five. At present, 65 countries have implemented WHO recommendations for SAM treatment (both in-patient for complicated cases and outpatient for uncomplicated cases) but these programs have very low coverage, reaching only around 10 - 15 % of SAM children. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) issued a joint statement in an effort to harmonize the application of anthropometric criteria for SAM diagnosis and monitoring in child aged 6 - 59 months; the statement presents recommended cut-offs, and summarizes the rational for the adoption, of the following two anthropometric criteria: 1. Weight-for-Height Z-Score (WHZ): "WHO and UNICEF recommend the use of a cut-off for weight-for-height of below -3 standard deviations (SD) of the WHO standards to identify infants and children as having SAM." Additionally, analysis of existing data show that children with a WHZ < -3 have a highly elevated risk of death. 2. Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC): "WHO standards for the MUAC-for-age show that in a well-nourished population there are very few children aged 6 - 59 months with a MUAC less than 115 mm. Children with a MUAC less than 115 mm have a highly elevated risk of death compared to those who are above. Thus it is recommended to [use] the cut-off point [of] 115 mm to define SAM with MUAC." GENERAL OBJECTIVE To generate new evidence on pathophysiological process, nutritional needs and risks associated with different types of anthropometric deficits in children under 5, in order to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of SAM. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES - To compare nutritional status, metabolism, pathophysiological process and risks in different types of SAM anthropometric diagnosis, with or without concomitant stunting (growth retardation). - To analyze the extent to which current SAM treatment is promoting recovery and healthy growth in different categories of children. - To evaluate the relevance of current discharge criteria used in nutrition programs and their association with metabolic recovery, in different age groups and among those who are stunted. - To test novel rapid tests of emerging biomarkers predicting long-term outcomes and mortality risk in the field. METHODOLOGY A wide range of supplementary information related to nutritional status, body composition, metabolic and immune status, including emerging biomarkers of metabolic deprivation and vulnerability, will be collected besides anthropometry during prospective observational studies. They will be collected with minimum level of invasiveness, compatible with field work requirements in the humanitarian context. Phase 1: Cross-sectional surveys. Phase 2: Prospective cohort studies involving SAM children between 6 months and 5 years old. Children admitted as SAM at the nutrition centers will be enrolled into the cohort. The follow up duration will be at least three months. EXPECTED OUTCOMES - Confirmation of current hypotheses related to: 1. possible misdiagnosis of SAM made by MUAC or WHZ criteria, 2. varying degree of severity and need for admission to treatment of the different types of diagnosis, 3. underlying heterogeneity of the pathophysiology. - Generation of new algorithms for the assessment and classification of malnourished children, based on the combined use of emerging biomarkers and anthropometric measures, or on the modification of anthropometric criteria. - Generation of new treatment paradigms based on the predictive value of biomarkers in combination with traditional anthropometric measures. This will enable us to assess the power of current treatment regimens to promote long-term weight gain and growth and will allow us to tailor treatment to the physiological needs of the child.
It has been observed that despite administration of apparently adequate thyroid hormone replacement in hypothyroid patients, many of them experience persistent fatigue and fatigue-related symptoms. Carnitine transports long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria whereupon the high energy source (ATP) becomes synthesized. Levocarnitine administration reduced fatigue related symptoms in hypothyroid patients receiving thyroid hormone replacement. The present study deals with alleviation of fatigue in hypothyroid patients by carnitine supplementation.
Burden: Pneumonia remains the leading infectious cause of death accounting 920,000 children under five around the world. This means a loss over 2,500 child lives every day, or over 100 every hour. Since 2000, the number of child deaths caused by pneumonia has decreased by 47 per cent. The tremendous progress made is due in part to the rapid roll-out of vaccines, better nutrition and improved care-seeking and treatment for symptoms. However, pneumonia hasn't declined as quickly as other diseases such as malaria (58%), HIV/AIDS (61%) and measles (85%). Knowledge gap: The Lancet Series on Childhood Pneumonia and Diarrhea has reported that case management is one of the three most effective interventions to reduce pneumonia deaths in children. It is also noted that cost effectiveness of these interventions in national health system needs urgent assessment. It was suggested to find out means to reduce hospital stay without compromising the quality of care. Relevance: The main purpose of our study is to compare the efficacy of two doses of parenteral Amoxicillin plus single dose Gentamicin compared to four doses of parenteral Ampicillin plus single dose Gentamicin. After 72 hours of treatment injectable Amoxicillin or injection Ampicillin will be switched to or replaced by oral Amoxicillin and will be discharged with an advice to attend to Ambulatory Care Unit (ACU) to receive once daily dose of injection Gentamicin for total 5 days. It is anticipated that this modified therapy will reduce hospitalization stay of children with severe pneumonia and would therefore be relevance in countries with resource poor setting. By reducing hospitalization period, this therapy has potentials to reduce hospital acquired infection. Hypothesis (if any): Rate of treatment failure with two doses of injectable Amoxicillin plus single dose Gentamicin will be not more than that of four doses of injectable Ampicillin plus single dose Gentamicin in the management of children between 2 months to 59 months hospitalized for WHO classified severe pneumonia.
Diarrhea is the 2nd leading cause of death in under-five children. When diarrhea continued for 14 days or more it is known as Persistent Diarrhea (PD). In low and middle income countries (LMIC), 3%-23% of acute diarrheal episodes turn to PD. PD causes 32-62% of all diarrheal deaths in LMIC, and >25% in Bangladesh in contrast to 0.8% is caused by acute diarrhea. The prevalence of PD varied from 6.3 to 16.4 %. However, no larger prospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of green banana in the management of PD among children older than 6 months.An open-labeled randomized controlled clinical trial is designed to assess the efficacy of green banana mixed full strength rice suji, and full strength rice suji alone compared to 3/4th strength rice suji in the management of persistent diarrhea (PD) in children aged > 6 months to 36 months in the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b.
It is estimated that over 200 million children under 5 years of age in developing countries are not attaining their developmental potential (e.g., neurobehavioral development) primarily because of poverty and associated health, nutritional deficiencies, and unstimulating home environment. Child's Neurobehavioral development consists of several interdependent domains of sensory-motor, cognitive-language, and social-emotional function. Experiences in the first few years of life are of particular importance because vital development occurs during this period. Early under nutrition, iron-deficiency, environmental toxins, stress, and poor stimulation and social interaction can affect brain structure and function. Stunting, inadequate cognitive stimulation, iodine deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia are identified as key risk factors, where the need for cognitive intervention is urgent, that prevent millions of young children from fulfilling their developmental potential and neurobehavioral development. It is clear that underprivileged children require not only good health, nutrition, and wealth but also supportive and caring environments and cognitive stimulation for their optimum neurobehavioral development as in the case of Bangladesh. Cognitive function and self-esteem of mothers is crucial for having the optimum outcome from intervention. However, little is known regarding the importance of mother's cognitive ability influencing different domains of her children's neurobehavioral development. This is how, the investigators plan to measure the maternal cognitive function and to assess the neurobehavioral development of underprivileged children. The investigators will enroll 200 mothers and children as a sample of the present study. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development will be used along with other interview scales.
Diabetes mellitus is a major public health concern for both the developed and the developing countries. Globally 246 million people affected with diabetes, and will rise up to 300 million by 2025. In India, around 25% of the 25 million pregnancies are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and increasing rapidly over the time. Reported prevalence rates for GDM for Sri Lanka (13%) and Bangladesh (10%) have been described. However, in Bangladesh, estimate varies from 9.7% to 12.9% when different criteria were used. Knowledge gap: There is knowledge gap on whether a resource- and culturally-appropriate lifestyle intervention program will be more effective and cost effective relative to usual care in delaying incidence of T2D among women in South Asia. Evidence of developed countries indicate that a low-intensity lifestyle intervention, integrated with antenatal care in health system, optimizes healthy diet and attenuates physical activity decline in early pregnancy. Objective of the study: 1.To determine whether a resource- and culturally-appropriate lifestyle intervention program in Bangladesh , provided to women with prior gestational diabetes after delivery, will reduce the incidence of worsening of glycaemic status. 2. To explore whether the designated lifestyle intervention program is affordable, acceptable and scalable locally. Methods: Study design: An open-label parallel group pragmatic individual randomized controlled trial with blinded primary endpoint adjudication. The randomized controlled trial will be preceded by an intervention development and optimization phase. Intervention: Low intensity lifestyle modification program Duration of intervention delivery: 1 years (12 months) and respondents would be followed up 6 monthly for next 3 years (36 months).Study settings: In Bangladesh, the investigators will conduct the intervention trial in 4 maternity care hospitals in Dhaka city. Sample size: A total of 1440 women with GDM from 24 hospitals (~60/hospital) will require for the RCT from 3 different countries. In Bangladesh, 360 participants from 4 selected maternity care hospitals (90 participants from each hospital, 45 cases and 45 controls) will be required. Inclusion Criteria: Absence of T2DM at 6±3months post-partum OGTT. Anticipated outcomes: Primary outcomes: Proportion of women with a change of glycaemic category, at or prior to final visit: Normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or T2DM; and/or impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Secondary outcomes: Mean changes in Body weight, Mean changes in waist circumference, Mean changes in systolic blood pressure, mean changes in fasting blood glucose, mean changes in physical activity, and mean changes in fruits and vegetable consumption, incremental cost effectiveness ratio and feasibility of intervention.
The objective of this registry is to gather data on the clinical outcomes of Medtronic mitral repair products (Profile 3D™ and CG Future® annuloplasty systems) in the approved intended use up to 12 months from the day of procedure
Burden: In developing countries, an estimated 219 million children do not reach their maximum potentiality because of poverty and associated risk factors. More than half of the Bangladeshi children <5 years are at risk for developmental delay due to poverty and sub-optimal home stimulation. Sometimes poor people become poorer due to catastrophic expenditure on health care and fall into the vicious cycle of poverty Knowledge gap: Although, there is evidence that conditional cash transfer helps develop poor people' health and nutritional status, little is known about the effect of unconditional cash transfer and health education (HE) programmes along with psychosocial stimulation on children' cognition and behaviour. Relevance: The study will bring an opportunity to evaluate the effect of transferring unconditional cash and health education programme along with psychosocial stimulation to poor families under safetynet programme of Bangladesh Govt. in rural areas. The study will also document direct and indirect cost to measure cost effectiveness that will help in decision making to implement the project if it shows benefits to children's development. Primary Hypothesis (if any): - Unconditional cash transfer (UCT) and health education (HE) programme will improve child's cognitive, motor and language development and behaviour compared to no intervention group. - Adding psychosocial stimulation to an unconditional cash transfer (UCT) and health education (HE) programme will will have an additive effect on Childs's cognitive, motor and language development and behaviour compared to the control groups Secondary Hypothesis: Additionally the intervention will - be cost effective, - reduce mothers' depressive symptoms and improve their self esteem - improve children's growth and household food security status - reduce domestic violence - Health seeking behaviour and health care expenditure Long-term goal: our ultimate goal is to find a suitable infrastructure to take to scale early child development activities for the whole country. Methods: It is a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial with three-arms (i) UCT+HE+Psychosocial stimulation (ii) UCT+HE and iii) Comparison group.