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The present study will investigate the effect of acute exercise on fasting and postprandial risk markers for coronary heart disease (CHD) in healthy male cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Participants will complete two, 2-day trials in a random crossover design separated by an interval of at least 1 week. On day 1, participants will rest (control) or complete 60 minute of treadmill exercise at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake (exercise). On day 2, participants will rest and consume two high fat meals (breakfast and lunch) over an 8-h period during which 13 venous blood samples and nine blood pressure measurements will be taken at pre-determined intervals. It is hypothesised that men who smoke cigarettes will exhibit impaired fasting and postprandial metabolic risk markers compared to non-smokers, but a single bout of exercise will be equally, if not more, efficacious for improving the CHD risk factor profile in smokers than non-smokers.
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is designed to increase healthy behaviours (e.g. physical activity, healthy eating, smoking abstinence) and reduce risk factors (e.g. high blood pressure & cholesterol) in order to improve quality of life and health among people with heart disease. Unfortunately, few patients attend CR, often reporting several barriers to access including travel distance, parking fees and lack of time. Advances in technology have the potential to improve accessibility and delivery of CR programs, and improve patient empowerment. The University of Ottawa Heart Institute has developed an e-health program called the Virtual Cardiac Rehabilitation Program (VCRP); an online cardiovascular health management system (website & Smartphone app) that provides strategies for the control and management of risk factors. The goals of VCRP are to: empower and educate patients; foster better communication between patients and their health care team; stimulate shared decision making; and, facilitate care coordination leading to better health outcomes. The VCRP provides patients with: real-time access to their health information, as well as tracking of risk behaviours and factors through integration with devices; a wellness plan; access to a personal on-line health coach; goal-setting notifications; on-line community forums; and, circle of care access to information. The aim of this project is to evaluate the effects of VCRP (with integrated fitness tracker) compared to a standard, home-based CR program. The study will look at changes in: patient empowerment; health behaviours; risk factors; quality of life; clinical outcomes; and, costs. The study will improve our understanding of: patient and provider needs; program usability; and shared decision-making. Results will inform the use of e-health programs such as VCRP into healthcare settings to improve patient empowerment, shared decision-making, and the ability to integrate wearable monitors to improve health behaviours.
P5.fi study - P4 together with a fifth 'P' and '.fi' for population health Finally Implemented in Finland - studies the value of returning genetic and metabolomic risk information in two diseases (coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes) and one feature (venous thromboembolism). The hypothesis of the study is that 1) combining genetic and metabolic risk with traditional risk factors adds value to the personal risk assessment of these diseases, 2) such risk information can be provided to individuals using a web based user portal in an easily understandable and useful format, and 3) receiving genetic and metabolomic risk information has an effect on the health of the study participants. The study is a continuation of FinHealth 2017 -study, which involved more than 7,000 Finns from around the country. The participants of FinHealth were invited to participate in P5.fi -study. The new research utilises information, samples, and measurements obtained in the FinHealth Study. Prospective clinical significance of selected genetic and metabolomic risk scores will be studied in 30.000 Finnish individuals. The study will analyze the genetic and metabolomic profile of the P5.fi participants and develop and test a protocol for returning them health related risk information. The impact of the intervention will by followed up by questionnaires and national health registers for five years.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for patients living with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). One group will receive the the intervention, and the other will receive treatment as usual (TAU). The investigators hypothesize that, compared to the TAU group, participants receiving the intervention will 1) experience greater confidence in managing their cardiac disease, as indicated by perceived self-efficacy and illness perceptions; 2) experience greater psychological adjustment as indicated by depressive, anxious, and demoralization symptoms; 3) experience greater engagement in health behaviors including healthy eating and physical activity.
The purpose of the study is to see whether the antibiotic combination of 100mg doxycycline, 500mg azithromycin and 300mg rifabutin is a safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease which has not responded to 'standard treatment'. Coronary artery disease is the process of plaque build up within the walls of the arteries responsible for supplying the heart with oxygen and nutrients. plaque is usually made up of fatty deposits, minerals and various amounts of tissue and white cells which eventually narrows the artery, reducing blood flow to the heart. The resulting damage and build up of fat leads to inflammation of the arterial wall and eventually the arteries narrow. The researchers involved in this study consider that a pathogen called Chlamydophila pneumoniae, which can live inside cells may cause this inflammation of the arterial wall. The purpose of this study is to see if treatment with this antibiotic combination in patients with CHD is safe and effective in reducing disease severity measured at coronary angiography and improving quality of life. Approximately 60 patients will be involved in this trial. the treatment period is 90 days with a further 90 day follow up period.
Restenosis occurs for many different reasons. Over the years, many predictive clinical, biological, genetic, epigenetic, lesion-related, and procedural risk factors for restenosis have been identified. Smoking is one of most important factors, however the results were contradictory. And the genetic factors of restenosis have been studied mostly in European populations. Based on literature review, study of candidate genes for restenosis in Chinese population was insufficient. With due attention to this matter mentioned above, the investigators aim to preliminary explore genetic variation and smoking effect on clinical restenosis in patients diagnosed with after percutaneous coronary intervention in the Chinese population, with correlation analysis of factors and gene-set analysis of biological pathways related to restenosis and platelet approach were widely used in this study.
Vegetarian and vegan diets have been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and have been associated with decreased risk of these chronic diseases. The role of vegetarian and/or vegan dietary patterns and incident cardiovascular outcomes still remains unclear. To address these uncertainties, the investigators propose to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the totality of evidence from prospective cohort studies to distinguish the association of vegetarian and/or vegan dietary patterns on the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. This proposed knowledge synthesis was commissioned by the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and will be used to inform clinical practice and dietary guidelines, help improve health outcomes, and guide future research design.
Bivalirudin is widely used as an anticoagulant to reduce the risk of bleeding in PCI perioperative period. Additionally, 15.7%-32.7% patients have diabetes mellitus who undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), so bivalirudin was used to anticoagulate in these patients to evaluate its safety and efficacy.
The European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) guidelines have not made any specific recommendations regarding dietary pulses. To update the recommendations, the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the EASD commissioned an umbrella review and updated systematic review and meta-analysis using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to summarize the available evidence from prospective cohort studies of the association between dietary pulses/legumes and cardiometabolic disease outcomes (incident cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension and overweight/obesity).
The European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) guidelines have not made any specific recommendations regarding the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, a dietary pattern that emphasizes fruits and vegetables, low-fat or non-fat dairy, limiting saturated fat intake and usually also recommends limiting sodium intake. To update the recommendations, the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the EASD commissioned an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to summarize the available evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials of the relationship between the DASH dietary pattern and cardiometabolic risk.