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Clinical Trial Details — Status: Recruiting

Administrative data

NCT number NCT02939729
Other study ID # 16/CARD/18
Secondary ID
Status Recruiting
Phase N/A
First received August 25, 2016
Last updated October 18, 2016
Start date September 2016
Est. completion date September 2018

Study information

Verified date October 2016
Source Golden Jubilee National Hospital
Contact Fiona Nolan, Grad Dip
Phone 0141 951 5121
Is FDA regulated No
Health authority United Kingdom: National Health Service
Study type Interventional

Clinical Trial Summary

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a physiotherapy prehabilitation programme (walking and deep breathing exercises) in cardiac or thoracic patients by measuring changes in lung volumes, functional capacity physiotherapy length of stay postoperatively.


Preoperative rehabilitation or "Prehabilitation" can be defined as "the process of enhancing the functional capacity of the individual to enable him or her to withstand a stressful event". Prehabilitation is a relatively new concept with emerging evidence demonstrating a reduction in length of hospital stay and disability, improved functional capacity and quality of life as well as fewer peri-operative complications compared to usual care.

Patients who are awaiting Cardiothoracic surgery are often fearful of being physically active, however extended periods of physical inactivity lead to a loss of muscle mass, physical deconditioning and pulmonary complications which can in turn lead to decreased quality of life, higher levels of morbidity, increased hospital length of stay and even fatality.

Based on literature supporting the positive effects of physical activity, physiotherapy prehabilitation aims to enhance functional exercise capacity in patients undergoing Cardiothoracic surgery and hence minimising the risk of postoperative morbidity and enhancing postsurgical recovery. Although there is evidence for prehabilitation in cardiothoracic specialties these are mainly within heart failure patients therefore not comparable to patients undergoing CABG or lobectomy surgeries.

The aim of this study is to determine whether a home based preoperative prehabilitation programme improves patients' functional capacity, as measured by a 6 minute walk test (6MWT) prior to surgery and improve post surgical recovery and recovery of functional capacity earlier. This study will compare functional capacity levels from baseline (at time of being accepted for surgery) and on the day of admission for surgery. Secondary aims are to determine functional capacity prior to discharge from hospital and at 6-8 week follow up appointment. Increasing maximal tidal volumes preoperatively would in turn decrease the chance of atelectasis postoperatively thereby decreasing pulmonary complications. Time to achieve discharge criteria from physiotherapy and total post-operative hospital length of stay will be assessed. Patient health related satisfaction will be assessed using the EQ-5D. The endpoint of this study will be when the patient returns for their routine 6-8 week follow up appointment and completes final 6MWT, tidal volume (TV) measurement and EQ-5D.

Recruitment information / eligibility

Status Recruiting
Enrollment 40
Est. completion date September 2018
Est. primary completion date September 2017
Accepts healthy volunteers No
Gender Both
Age group 18 Years and older
Eligibility Inclusion Criteria:

- Cardiac surgery -

- Patients undergoing primary CABG surgery

- Age >18 years old

- Able to mobilise independently with/without a walking aid

Thoracic surgery -

- Patients undergoing lobectomy surgery

- Age >18 years old

- Able to mobilise independently with/without a walking aid

Exclusion Criteria:

- Cardiac surgery -

- Unstable angina (Grade IIIb as described in Braunwald Classification of Unstable Angina/ angina at rest within the last 48 hours)

- History of cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

- History of traumatic brain injury (TBI)

- Patients who require interpreter

- Falls risk as classified by the GJNH falls risk document

- Patients included within cardiac surgery ERAS programme

- Any patient who lacks capacity to consent

- Patients who are admitted for urgent or emergency cardiac surgery e.g. aortic stenosis

Thoracic surgery -

- Unstable angina (Grade IIIb as described in Braunwald Classification of Unstable Angina/ angina at rest within the last 48 hours)

- History of cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

- History of traumatic brain injury (TBI)

- Patients who require interpreter

- Falls risk as classified by the GJNH falls risk document

- Any patient who lacks capacity to consent

- Patients who are admitted for urgent or emergency surgery

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Investigator), Primary Purpose: Supportive Care


Walking Programme
Walking programme measured by daily step count on pedometer provided to participant. Participants will be advised to increase daily step count from their baseline measure - realistic incremental rise according to individual ability and symptoms. Daily step count will be recorded in a participant study diary.
Incentive Spirometer
An incentive spirometer is a device used to measure lung tidal volumes. Participants will be asked to use the incentive spirometer to measure their tidal volume daily. Participants will record daily tidal volume measurement in the participant diary. A physiotherapist will teach participants how to use the incentive spirometer and provide an instruction sheet.
Deep Breathing Exercises
Participants will be taught deep breathing exercises - these are the same deep breathing exercises shown to all patients after cardiac surgery as part of chest physiotherapy treatment. Participants will be asked to carry out deep breathing exercises at home during the prehabilitation phase. An instruction sheet for the deep breathing exercises will be provided to participants.


Country Name City State
United Kingdom Golden Jubilee National Hospital Glasgow

Sponsors (1)

Lead Sponsor Collaborator
Golden Jubilee National Hospital

Country where clinical trial is conducted

United Kingdom, 

References & Publications (12)

ATS Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories. ATS statement: guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul 1;166(1):111-7. — View Citation

Carli F, Charlebois P, Stein B, Feldman L, Zavorsky G, Kim DJ, Scott S, Mayo NE. Randomized clinical trial of prehabilitation in colorectal surgery. Br J Surg. 2010 Aug;97(8):1187-97. doi: 10.1002/bjs.7102. — View Citation

Carli F, Zavorsky GS. Optimizing functional exercise capacity in the elderly surgical population. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005 Jan;8(1):23-32. Review. — View Citation

Ditmyer MM, Topp R, Pifer M. Prehabilitation in preparation for orthopaedic surgery. Orthop Nurs. 2002 Sep-Oct;21(5):43-51; quiz 52-4. Review. — View Citation

Gillis C, Li C, Lee L, Awasthi R, Augustin B, Gamsa A, Liberman AS, Stein B, Charlebois P, Feldman LS, Carli F. Prehabilitation versus rehabilitation: a randomized control trial in patients undergoing colorectal resection for cancer. Anesthesiology. 2014 Nov;121(5):937-47. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000393. — View Citation

McKelvie RS, Teo KK, Roberts R, McCartney N, Humen D, Montague T, Hendrican K, Yusuf S. Effects of exercise training in patients with heart failure: the Exercise Rehabilitation Trial (EXERT). Am Heart J. 2002 Jul;144(1):23-30. — View Citation

Mooney M, Fitzsimons D, Richardson G. "No more couch-potato!" Patients' experiences of a pre-operative programme of cardiac rehabilitation for those awaiting coronary artery bypass surgery. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2007 Mar;6(1):77-83. Epub 2006 Jul 10. — View Citation

Santa Mina D, Clarke H, Ritvo P, Leung YW, Matthew AG, Katz J, Trachtenberg J, Alibhai SM. Effect of total-body prehabilitation on postoperative outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiotherapy. 2014 Sep;100(3):196-207. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2013 Nov 13. Review. — View Citation

Sawatzky JA, Kehler DS, Ready AE, Lerner N, Boreskie S, Lamont D, Luchik D, Arora RC, Duhamel TA. Prehabilitation program for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients: a pilot randomized controlled study. Clin Rehabil. 2014 Jul;28(7):648-57. doi: 10.1177/0269215513516475. Epub 2014 Jan 23. — View Citation

Solway S, Brooks D, Lacasse Y, Thomas S. A qualitative systematic overview of the measurement properties of functional walk tests used in the cardiorespiratory domain. Chest. 2001 Jan;119(1):256-70. Review. — View Citation

Topp R, Ditmyer M, King K, Doherty K, Hornyak J 3rd. The effect of bed rest and potential of prehabilitation on patients in the intensive care unit. AACN Clin Issues. 2002 May;13(2):263-76. Review. — View Citation

Valkenet K, van de Port IG, Dronkers JJ, de Vries WR, Lindeman E, Backx FJ. The effects of preoperative exercise therapy on postoperative outcome: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2011 Feb;25(2):99-111. doi: 10.1177/0269215510380830. Epub 2010 Nov 8. Review. — View Citation

* Note: There are 12 references in allClick here to view all references


Type Measure Description Time frame Safety issue
Primary Difference between groups functional activity from baseline to point of admission for surgery as measured by the 6MWT. The 6MWT is a validated test that requires no exercise equipment or "advanced" training for the assessor. Walking is an activity carried out on a daily basis by most people. The 6MWT measures the distance that a person can walk on a flat surface over a period of 6 minutes. The majority of activities of daily living are carried out at "sub-maximal" levels similar to the level of exertion of the 6MWT as the patient sets their own intensity (American Thoracic Society 2002). A review of functional walking tests suggested that "the 6MWT is easy to administer, better tolerated, and more reflective of activities of daily living than the other walk tests" (Solway et al 2001). Other prehabilitation studies have used the 6MWT as an outcome measure of functional activity therefore is widely accepted as a reliable measure of functional activity (Sawatzky et al 2014; Carli et al 2010; Gillis et al 2014). From date of randomisation to date of admission for surgery (up to 8 weeks) No
Secondary Functional capacity as measured by 6MWT on day of discharge and at return clinic appointment (up to 8 weeks) Date of discharge from physiotherapy and at return clinic appointment (up to 8 weeks) No
Secondary Tidal Volume (TV) measures with incentive spirometer. At baseline, preoperative, postoperative days 1, 2 and 3 and at return clinic appointment (up to 8 weeks) No
Secondary Day of discharge from Physiotherapy. Physiotherapy discharge criteria: mobilising safely and independently with or without walking aid approximately 100 metres; independently managing chest and safely completed stairs assessment (approximately post op day 3 to 5). Once all physiotherapy criteria have been met (approximately 3 to 5 days). No
Secondary Total postoperative hospital length of stay. Once all hospital discharge criteria have been met (approximately 5-7 days). No
Secondary EQ-5D score. A standardized and validated measure of health status which can be used in a wide range of health conditions. It is a simple method which patients can complete at the beginning and end of treatment. It encompasses five dimensions of health: mobility, ability to self care, ability to complete activities of daily living, pain and discomfort, and anxiety and depression (Chartered Society of Physiotherapists, 2016). At baseline and follow up clinic appointment (up to 8 weeks). No
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