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Cocaine abuse is associated with serious physical, psychiatric and social problems. Addiction results in the compulsive use of a substance with loss of control and persistence despite the negative consequences.The act of re-engaging in the search for drugs is called relapse and a particularly insidious aspect of addiction is that vulnerability to relapse lasts for many years after stopping drug use. The main reason why people continue to use cocaine is because of its influence on the reward system.Indeed, this substance makes it possible to increase the level of dopamine, particularly in the nucleus accumbens.This increase in dopamine is not related to the hedonic pleasure that consumption provides. Instead, it imprints a positive value to enhancers and facilitates the learning of reward associations through the modulation of the cortical and subcortical regions of the brain.In other words, it suggests that users become sensitive to a series of stimuli that combine with a rewarding feeling, which drives them to consume when they encounter them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used for a long time, mainly as mucolytic. It has also been used as a glutathione antioxidant precursor in the treatment of paracetamol overdose for more than 30 years. NAC has shown beneficial effects in animal models of cocaine addiction by reversing neuroplasticity and reducing the risk of restoring consumer behavior in rodents. Human studies show that NAC is potentially effective in preventing relapse in abstinent patients and ineffective in reducing current consumption. In this study the investigators will test a sample of newly detoxified (and therefore abstinent) patients who have taken a 3-4 week course of treatment, in order determine if NAC can be a useful medication candidate to avoid relapse in patients with cocaine dependence.
Repetitive bilateral (left cathodal/ right anodal) transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to reduce craving and relapse risk. However, little is known about the relapse rates in cocaine addiction after tDCS, despite the need for new treatment interventions to reduce the high relapse rates in cocaine addiction. The investigators aim to explore the effects of repetitive tDCS in a larger sample (N=80) of cocaine addicted patients on number of relapse days after three months. In addition, the underlying working mechanism will be explored (e.g. cognitive control functioning). Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) will be used to measure relapse, craving and mood since retrospective self-reports seem to be less reliable in this respect.
This study evaluates the use of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of alcohol and cocaine use disorders. Alcohol users will be split in two groups, one will receive the active N-acetylcysteine and the other placebo. The same division will occur with cocaine users. The effects of N-acetylcysteine in adherence, abstinence, psychiatric symptoms and stress biomarkers will be evaluated.
High relapse rates among substance dependent individuals are likely due to a combination of factors that involve limbic circuits in the brain involved in craving, including vulnerability to salient cues. Emerging data suggests that non-invasive, targeted brain stimulation may be able to modulate activity in these circuits and decrease craving. The primary goal of this pilot study is to determine the extent to which a single session of continuous theta burst stimulation (TBS) to the medial prefrontal cortex can attenuate limbic circuitry involved in craving among cocaine users and alcohol users. This will be tested through a double-blind,sham-controlled brain stimulation and brain imaging study in a cohort of polysubstance abusers and alcohol users.
Cocaine addiction is a chronic condition with severe cardiac, neurologic, psychiatric and social complications. Cocaine is the second most consumed illicit drug in France. Its prevalence has been multiplied by 3 between 2000 and 2008, and is still on the rise. Craving, the compulsive need to consume, is a key feature of cocaine addiction. It is also predictive of treatment efficacy. However, there is no validated treatment for severe cocaine dependence yet. Response to current psychological and medical treatment is poor, with 73% relapse after 3 months. Patients with severe cocaine addiction are thus in a therapeutic deadlock. To address these unmet medical needs, the investigators designed a pilot study (n=2) to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of the deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN-DBS) in severe cocaine addiction with at least one cardiac, neurologic or psychiatric complication. Indeed, compulsivity is a critical component of craving, and severe treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are already successfully treated using STN-DBS. Moreover, animal studies recently demonstrated a therapeutic effect of STN-DBS in rats addicted to cocaine. Together, these two lines of research suggest a therapeutic effect of STN-DBS in cocaine addiction mediated by an anti-obsessive mechanism on craving.
The pharmacokinetics of 10 to 12 individuals receiving 60 mg of sustained release dexamphetamine will be studied. These individuals have received this medication before in a previous trial where the pharmacodynamics were investigated. This trial will last 5 consecutive days during which blood samples will be drawn for pharmacokinetics analyses. Dried blood spots will also be collected for the clinical validation of the bioanalytical method wherein these are used.
This study aims at testing for the impact of glutamatergic changes on drug craving in cocaine addiction, and to evaluate the effects of n-acetylcysteine (n-AC) on both glutamate homeostasis and craving using a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over design.
The main purpose of this study is to determine if it is safe to use the study drug, clavulanic acid, in combination with cocaine. In this study, subjects will receive intravenous (i.v.) cocaine and the study drug, clavulanic acid. The safety of clavulanic acid is being studied so future studies can be done to find out if this drug is helpful in treating cocaine dependence. Currently, there is no available medication treatment for cocaine dependence.
This study will, in a sample of cocaine-dependent and healthy control subjects, administer corticorelin and compare dopamine release between groups. Dopamine release will be measured using PET neuroimaging with the radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO.
We propose that the systemic administration of lidocaine following the induction of cue-induced craving, relative to saline plus cue-induced craving or lidocaine without cue-induced craving, will block the reconsolidation of cue memories. This will lead to a reduction in cue-induced craving upon repeated testing as well as subsequent cocaine use and basal craving.