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Chronic liver diseases related to viral hepatitis, metabolic syndrome or excessive alcohol consumption can evolve towards cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is responsible for 170 000 deaths per year in Europe. Initially asymptomatic and called "compensated" it can become"decompensated" with the developpement of acute complications such as infections, ascites or variceal bleeding. The transition from compensated to decompensated cirrhosis is associated with a reduction in survival from 95 to 55% at 1 year. The only curative treatment for cirrhosis is liver transplantation (LT). Liver transplants are allocated according to the severity of the patients. Despite a modest prognostic value (area under the ROC curve = 0.7 to predict the risk of death), graft allocation is based on the MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score including INR, bilirubin and serum creatinine. In 2014, 11.5% of registered patients died on the liver transplant waiting list, illustrating the need for biomarkers that predict death and improve MELD-based prediction. Microvesicles are membrane vesicles released in extracellular space during cell activation or apoptosis. Our team showed that circulating levels of hepatocyte microvesicles increase with the severity of cirrhosis and predict survival at 6 months independently of MELD score in a cohort of 242 patients with cirrhosis. Type 1 interferons (IFN-1) are mediators of inflammation, which is excessively activated in cirrhosis. Our team has shown that a gene signature (IFN score) measured in the immune cells of 101 patients with cirrhosis is able to predict 6 month-survival independently of the MELD score. Thus, the investigators hypothesize that a composite score combining the level of circulating hepatocyte microvesicles, the IFN score and the MELD score could improve the prediction of survival in patients with severe cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to compare the prognostic performance for the cumulative incidence of death at 6 months of a composite score including MELD, hepatocyte microvesicle level and IFN score with that of the MELD score alone, in patients with Child B or C cirrhosis, considering liver transplantation as a competitive risk. To address this question, peripheral blood from 335 patients with Child B or C cirrhosis will be obtained and hepatocyte microvesicle levels and IFN score will be measured using ELISA/filtration and Real Time-quantitative PCR.
Endothelin is a human hormone which has been associated with increased portal pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis (also called portal hypertension). Ambrisentan blocks the effects of endothelin. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of ambrisentan on portal pressure and renal function in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis and with portal hypertension. In this study, portal pressure will be determined at multiple times with the aid of a catheter inserted into the body of the patient. The effect of ambrisentan on the function of the kidney will also be investigated. This study will also evaluate the concentrations of ambrisentan in blood in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Patients with end stage of liver disease or cirrhosis can develop confusion due to high ammonia and inflammation. This confusion is brought upon by changes in the bacteria in the bowels and may not respond to current standard of care treatments. Repeated episodes of confusion can make it difficult for patients to function and may result in multiple admissions to the hospital and burden on the family. The investigators have studied using a healthy person's stool to replace the bowel bacteria, called fecal microbial transplant, in small studies with good results. In this trial the investigators propose to perform these procedures using an upper and lower route in Veterans who suffer from this condition and follow them for safety and hospitalizations over 6 months. The investigators will compare this to placebo treatments and hope that this intervention can improve the health and daily functioning of affected patients.
The accuracy of ultrasound elastography for assessing liver fibrosis by measuring liver stiffness (elastic modulus) is better than traditional method. Elastography has certain advantage such as non-invasive, simple, real-time and it has been recommended by clinical guidelines. However, some chanllenging scientific problems showed up with further research and clinical practice. Firstly, present elastography machines can only calculate liver stiffness from shear wave speed or elastic modulus but ignore other physical characteristics such as tissue viscosity. So far, present technique simply assume liver as an idealized model with isotropic elasticity to assess liver fibrosis while liver is actually anisotropic and viscoelastic. What's more, theoretically, there are not only different solid state structures such as cell organization and vessel but also flowing liquid such as blood and bile. Thus, ignoring viscosity and evaluating elasticity only is unreasonable. In the other hand, a number of confounding factors have been found to influence liver stiffness measurement by elastography. Different pathological chang of liver including inflammation, necrosis, cholestasis and inhomogeneity among the individuals such as obesity, ascites, et,al. will decrease the accuracy of liver stiffness measurement and liver fibrosis staging by elastography. In fact, liver fibrosis is a dynamic process. Liver fibrosis is a reaction of compensation and repair for inflammation and necrosis as well as a contributing factor for liver damage. This dynamic process constitutes the common characteristic of chronic liver disease and result in the complicated biological mechanical characteristics of liver. In consequence, how to measure liver viscosity and elasticity respectively, and to evaluate liver fibrosis stage and Inflammation degree accurately during the complicated and dynamic pathological process is the key scientific problem demanding solution, which is also the urgent requirement of related fundamental research and clinical practice. Therefore, this project plan to apply LOGIQ E viscoelastography machine as research tool, rat liver fibrosis model and rat liver failure model as research object to investigate the correlation between liver viscoelastography measurement and liver fibrosis stage and Inflammation degree. The investigators also aim to assess the feasibility of using ulstrasound viscoelastography to evaluate liver fibrosis stage and Inflammation degree dynamically.
The main risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is cirrhosis of any etiology, with an annual incidence risk between 1-6%; currently the leading cause of death in patients with cirrhosis and the 2nd cause of death by cancer worldwide. Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) is the first single cause associated to cirrhosis and HCC in the Western world. With the advent of new direct antiviral agents (DAA) of chronic HCV infection, virological cure generally exceeds 90% of the cases. Previous studies have shown that the incidence of HCC is lower in patients with virologic cure after treatment with pegINF schemes. However, recently published data, open up more controversy regarding the incidence of HCC after virologic cure with DAA. An increasing incidence of HCC after virologic cure in patients treated with DAA has been observed, opening a paradox yet unexplained. This project proposes to answer the following clinical research question: in patients with HCV cirrhosis treated with DAA, is there a change in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma? To answer this question a prospective longitudinal cohort study of patients with Child Pugh A-B cirrhosis will be held at 3 years minimum follow-up. A minimum of 210 patients will be included with clinical or histological or non-invasive diagnosis of cirrhosis Child Pugh A or B, with HCV treated with DAA and without hepatocellular carcinoma at the time of enrollment. From this cohort, patients who develop HCC during follow-up will be identified. Routine screening will be done through ultrasound every 6 months in all subjects enrolled and the diagnosis of HCC will be according to recommendations of European and American guidelines.
This study aims to prospectively assess the repeatability and reproducibility of iron-corrected T1 (cT1), T2*, and hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) quantification with multiparametric MRI using the LiverMultiScan™ (LMS, Perspectum Diagnostics, Oxford, UK) protocol across different field strengths, scanner manufacturers and models.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) corresponds to the neurological or the neuropsychological symptoms caused by an acute or chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunt. Many patients present neurological symptoms even if their liver disease is stabilized. Furthermore, HE is associated with an altered quality of life and an increased mortality. Its incidence is high with 30 to 80% of cirrhotic patients that will display according to retained diagnostic criteria. HE symptoms are going from subtle neuropsychological abnormalities detected only on neuropsychological testing, minimal HE, to altered consciousness, overt HE. Recently, the therapeutic armamentarium has increased with now several drugs (rifaximin, ammonia lowering agents) that are able to prevent new bouts of HE. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of minimal HE is difficult and no gold-standard is available. None of the proposed test is rapid and easily performed at bedside. Recently, different studies suggest the potential interest of the study of the ocular movements in HE. Abnormalities in ocular saccades could be an early predictor of cortical impairment. In a pilot feasibility study using an eye-tracker, we could show that cirrhotic patients with minimal HE had, compared to healthy controls, increased latencies, decreased speed of voluntary and reflex saccades, more errors in anti-saccades, more anticipations saccades and more difficulties to fix the target. Our hypothesis was that the use of the eye-tracker will enable the diagnosis of minimal HE by studying the characteristics of saccades and anti-saccades. Since no gold-standard is available for the diagnosis of minimal HE, we will use the conclusion of an adjudication committee formed by 2 experts. Their clinical judgment will take into account the results of medical history, clinical examination, neuropsychological testing, PHES, Critical Flicker Frequency test (CFF), ammonemia levels, EEG and brain MRI with spectroscopy.
Patients with hepatic cirrhosis and previous variceal bleeding will be randomly assigned to use propranolol or carvedilol. After 8 weeks, rosuvastatin or placebo will be blindly added to nonresponders (HVPG measurement > 12mmHg) for another 8 weeks and hemodynamic response will be assessed again.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the key examination for screening for precancerous and cancerous lesions of the esophagus and stomach. This study aims to describe the quality of the visualization of the esophageal and gastric mucosa, the safety of use of two fasting procedures before gastroscopy and the feeling of patients. The population evaluated here concerns cirrhotic patients, at high risk of developing a precancerous lesion of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The investigator carries out a prospective, monocentric (Besançon CHRU), interventional and randomized study according to two fasting procedures before gastroscopy: 6 hours (F6 group) versus 2 hours (F2 group) for clear fluids. The primary endpoint was to describe and compare the quality of visualization of the esophageal and gastric mucosa, graded from A (good quality) to C (poor quality) according to a score. developed by Elvas et al. (Endoscopy 2017).
The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the superiority of an "early tips" strategy over standard treatment by glue obliteration (G0) in preventing bleeding recurrence or death at one year after a non GOV1 gastric variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients initially treated by GO.