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This study evaluates the adaptations on the functional capacity and cardiovascular in elderly after a physical activity program circuit training. The participants were divided into three groups: Circuit training based on high-intensity interval training group (HIT), Circuit training at moderate intensity group (MIT) and Control group (GC).
This study will examine the short-term cardiovascular (CV) effects of e-cigarette device power in a randomized, crossover clinical and behavioral pharmacology study of experienced adult e-cigarette users (N=21). The specific aim is to determine the impact of e-cigarette power on nicotine pharmacology, systemic exposure to toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and short-term cardiovascular effects.
Despite significant improvements in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the growing aging population suggests CVD will continue to pose a significant public health burden. Women are a special group where microvascular disease is more common and traditional risk factors may not fully identify risk. Women's reproductive history (e.g. menarcheal age, menstrual cycles, infertility, pregnancy, menopause) may pose unique risk and suggests an opportunity for new approaches. The investigators propose a women-centered approach for early identification of women at risk that investigates the unique loss of reproductive function at an age long before other vital systems fail. Despite its importance, little is known about the determinants or correlates of ovarian aging, or the health implications, especially in diverse communities. Only recently have reliable biomarkers of the remaining oocyte pool been available for use in normally cycling women. This availability gives us a unique opportunity to characterize the association between "ovarian age" (cross-sectional) and the rate of "ovarian aging" or oocyte decline over time (longitudinal) and the health implications of accelerated oocyte loss. The investigators hypothesize ovarian age/aging provides a window onto the general health of women. The investigators suggest it is not the progressive deficiency of estrogen with menopause that increases risk, but common underlying cellular aging mechanisms first evident in young populations as lower ovarian reserve (follicle number) due to the unique sensitivity of the ovary. Studies of cellular aging focused on mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and telomere length have identified correlations with CVD risk. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of cellular aging suggests telomere shortening and dysfunction may drive mitochondrial dysfunction and potentially the parallel between cellular aging and CVD. The oocyte is particularly sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction, having 10 times the number of mitochondria as any somatic cell. Additionally, mitochondrial dysfunction and telomere shortening have been associated with ovarian aging. This begs the question of whether, given the susceptibility of the ovary to mitochondrial dysfunction, accelerated ovarian aging may be a harbinger of subsequent CVD risk. To address this critical question, the investigators propose to leverage the largest and most ethnically diverse population of normal reproductive-aged women, with detailed measures of ovarian age, and to deploy peripheral endothelial function testing, a non-invasive sensitive marker of early CVD risk. Ovarian aging is thought to be largely genetically determined, but the impact of race/ethnicity has not been fully explored. Evaluating the impact of ethnicity on ovarian aging, and combining this information with the impact of modifiable behavioral risk factors, may help clarify CVD risk in young, ethnically-diverse, reproductive-age women. The investigators believe improving our understanding of factors that affect the rate of oocyte/follicle loss and the relationship with CVD risk factors will promote a novel method to identify women at earlier and/or increased cardiac risk.
The Exercise and Obesity Health Promotion (PESO) program is a randomized controlled trial designed to analyze the effects of a lifestyle intervention in weight management and health-related parameters of overweight and obese premenopausal women
Prior research suggests that sedentary behavior is detrimental to health, independent of exercise activity. Sedentary behavior is defined as behaviors that involve low levels of energy expenditure ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents (including sitting, watching TV, reading, and driving). Due to the high burden of sedentary behaviors in modern-day societies, this has potential implications for novel intervention strategies to reduce sitting (outside of regular exercise activity) and improve health. In addition, the modern workplace fosters sedentary behavior, and sedentary jobs now make up more than 80% of the workforce. The goal of this project is to implement interventions to reduce sedentary behavior at work and evaluate their impact on physiologic parameters and markers of disease. Specifically, the investigators/study team will use direct measurement of vascular endothelial function as one of our outcomes. This is important since conduit artery endothelial function, assessed by arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), is a powerful indicator of vascular inflammation and predictor of future cardiovascular events.
This research study will test the effects of macadamia nuts on adiposity, and traditional and emergent risk factors of cardiometabolic disease in adult men and women
Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of extra-virgin olive oil and refined olive oil, in adjunct to conventional medical treatment, in improving liver enzymes, plasma lipid profile and inflammatory markers in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with decreased risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. CRF is linked with more conserved gray and white matter (WM) volume, improved WM microstructural integrity, and better cognitive performance among healthy older adults. Additional research is needed to determine: (1) which WM tracts are most strongly related to CRF, (2) whether CRF-related benefits on WM translate to enhanced cognitive functioning, and (3) factors that mediate and moderate CRF effects. Higher CRF was hypothesized to be associated with stronger WM integrity, both globally and locally in WM tracts that connect frontal brain regions. The neuroprotective effects were hypothesized to be age-dependent, such that the association between CRF and WM integrity would be stronger in old age compared to younger age. Finally, higher CRF was hypothesized to predict stronger performance on tests of executive functioning (EF), partially mediated by frontal WM integrity. Delineation of specific neurocognitive effects of CRF may serve clinicians in individually tailoring wellness interventions to meet patients' specific cognitive concerns with aging.
The study aims to compare the postprandial response of plasma phosphate and cardiometabolic relevant factors to phosphate intake in defined diet(s).
Berberine is extracted from Coptis (Huanglian) and Phellodendron Chinese (Huangbai), to make into berberine tablets.1 Recent studies have shown that berberine has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors,1,2 such as lowering the risk of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension.1 In a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of 27 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), berberine effectively reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (-0.65 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.75 to -0.56), triglycerides (TG) (-0.39 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.59 to -0.19), total cholesterol (TC) (-0.66 mmol/L, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.31) and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (0.07mmol/L, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.1).1 Notably, no serious adverse event has been reported in these trials,1 suggesting a good tolerability of berberine. The mechanism by which berberine exerts a protective role in atherosclerosis is unclear. Protoberberines have been identified as a new inhibitor of AKR1C3, an enzyme responsible for the regulation of steroid hormone action.3 The investigators propose to examine the effects of berberine on a set of well-established CVD risk factors, specifically, lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, thromboxane, adiposity, as well as to examine potential mediation via testosterone using a mechanistic, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Chinese men with hyperlipidemia.