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Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) in adults remains a major public health issue in industrialized countries, leading to a mortality rate greater than 90%. The analysis of French data estimates the number of sudden deaths at around 40,000 per year. The incidence rate for non-hospital CAs is 55 per 100,000 every year with an immediate survival rate of 9% and 4.8% at one year.
ICU patients with severe heart or lung failure may require an external device called extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to oxygenate their blood. The use of ECMO is rapidly increasing. It has the capability to completely replace a non-functioning heart or lungs for days to weeks, but ECMO patients only have a 42% hospital survival rate. ECMO use is associated with significant costs and risks, and it needs experienced staff. To better manage this complex intervention, the investigators need to have quality data on patients who require ECMO. The aim of EXCEL is to create a bi-national network of integrated care that will identify best practice and cost effectiveness for patients suffering from acute cardiac failure, lung failure, or cardiac arrest and require ECMO. The investigators will collect information on 525 ECMO patients while in the ICU and the investigators aim to utilise telephone follow-up of survivors to assess disability free survival, quality of life and other long term outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Information collected will be stored in the EXCEL database and will be periodically reviewed to address safety concerns, clinical questions and process of care issues. Data will be collected over a 3 year period.
This is an observational study to define the role and future applications of cerebral oximetry in cardiac arrest patients.
Current standard of care prior to determination of brain death in subjects with suspected anoxic brain injury is to exclude complicating medical conditions that may confound clinical assessment (such as severe electrolyte, acid base, endocrine or circulatory disturbance), achieve normothermia and normal systolic blood pressure over 100 mmHg (with or without vasopressor use), exclude the presence of neuromuscular blocking agents (with the presence of a train of 4 twitches with maximal ulnar nerve stimulation) as well as to exclude the presence of CNS depressant drug effects. At the present time the latter is done by history, drug screen and allowing enough time for paralytic and sedative drugs to be metabolized and cleared from the body. Clearance is calculated by using 5 times the drug's half-life assuming normal hepatic and renal functions. Half-life can also be prolonged in subjects who have been treated with induced hypothermia. Literature search revealed articles with general guidelines and approaches to brain death, but none addressed pharmacological reversal of sedative drugs
REBOA is an endovascular technique that is becoming more widely used in the setting of severe trauma. It is a procedure where one uses the seldigner technique to advance a balloon tipped catheter into the femoral artery and then into the aorta. The balloon is then inflated to fully occlude blood flow to the distal aorta. Study investigators hypothesize that this technique may be of use in the setting of medical cardiac arrest. By occluding the aorta and preventing distal blood flow during CPR, physicians might maximize perfusion to the heart and the brain, and promote return of spontaneous circulation and neurologic recovery. Investigators plan to conduct an IDE approved early feasibility study using the ER-REBOA catheter in five patients who are in cardiac arrest of medical (i.e. non-traumatic) etiology. The primary outcome will be feasibility. Investigators plan to expand the study to an additional 15 patients if, after the initial five patients, the risk-benefit profile remains favorable.
Almost all patients with refractory cardiac arrest, who are primarily stabilized under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation by transcutaneous implantation of a venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system (va-ECMO for eCPR) develop post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). PCAS is characterised by cytokine storm resulting in vasodilation and membrane leakage, which is poorly controlled and often fatal. Case reports and data from the investigators' single-center registry indicate that cytokine adsorption with the CytoSorb removal column can be safely added to va-ECMO, but its efficacy and safety have not been examined systematically. This pilot study will assign all comers undergoing eCPR to va-ECMO with or without cytokine adsorber in a 1:1 fashion. This will ensure comparability and allow analysing clinical endpoints, but is limited by sample size (according to their experience the investigators expect approximately 20 cases per year). The investigators will however be able to generate important data about safety, secondary endpoints such as Interleukin-6-removal or vasopressor use and low-power data about efficacy concerning the primary endpoint 30-day survival.
Identifying the correct arrhythmia at the time of a clinic event including cardiac arrest is of high priority to patients, healthcare organizations, and to public health. Recent developments in artificial intelligence and machine learning are providing new opportunities to rapidly and accurately diagnose cardiac arrhythmias and for how new mobile health and cardiac telemetry devices are used in patient care. The current investigation aims to validate a new artificial intelligence statistical approach called 'convolution neural network classifier' and its performance to different arrhythmias diagnosed on 12-lead ECGs and single-lead Holter/event monitoring. These arrhythmias include; atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, AV-block, asystole, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, and will be benchmarked to the American Heart Association performance criteria (95% one-sided confidence interval of 67-92% based on arrhythmia type). In order to do so, the study approach is to create a large ECG database of de-identified raw ECG data, and to train the neural network on the ECG data in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy.
Technical advance as broad-bandwidth wireless internet coverage and the ubiquity utilization of smartphones has opened up new possibilities which surpass the normal audio-only telephony. High quality and real-time video-telephony is now feasible. However until now this technology hasn't been deployed in the emergency respond service. In the hope of helping the detection of the cardiac arrest, offer the possibility to evaluate and correct via a video-instructed CPR (V-CPR) and to facilitate a fast localization of the emergency site, a new software (EmergencyEye®/RAMSES®) was developed which enables the dispatcher a video-telephony with the callers mobile terminal (smartphone) if suitable. This technology hasn't been tested in a randomized controlled trial in real environment conditions yet. This is to be done in this study.
This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of Neu2000KWL, a neuroprotectant, in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and receiving therapeutic hypothermia.
Cardiac arrest (CA) early recognition is essential in order to rapidly activate emergency services and for bystanders to begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). As soon as a call is received, EMS dispatchers should try to identify CA. This may be difficult, in a context of stress and distress of the person calling. Yet, it is vital for bystanders to initiate CPR. Survival can be multiplied by 2 to 4 if the bystanders initiate a CPR before the arrival of the emergency medical services. This work aim to assess a multifaceted intervention combining 3 elements to improve the initial phone recognition of CA and raise the number of patients benefiting from CPR before EMS arrival on scene. The first element is a dispatcher training to the early phone recognition of CA. This training will be based on the concept of active teaching, favouring the interactive work of learners in particular by listening to real dispatch recordings. It will be completed by continuing education with a distance teaching platform including the systematic listening of recorded CA calls. The second element is based on the deployment of a software aiming to notify CA thanks to mobile phones. This system interfaced to a control software enables to request the participation of CPR-trained volunteers automatically. The volunteers have to be located in the patient's surroundings. The deployment of this mobile application will rely on first-aid volunteers, health personal and any trained volunteers willing to participate. A randomized control study in one city area proved the efficiency of a similar software to improve the proportion of CPR by bystanders. The third element consists in a motivational feedback. A weekly overview of the management and the outcomes of patients who suffered CA will be broadcast to all the responders and volunteers in the mobile application.