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Obesity is associated with increased risk of several cancers. Suggested mechanisms mediating the obesity-cancer associations include hyperinsulinemia and altered IGF signaling, changes in sex hormone levels as well as altered secretion of adipokines and inflammatory proteins. However, little is known about the influence of lifetime adiposity on the relevant biomarkers. Moreover, although diet has been suggested to ameliorate the adverse metabolic effects of obesity, convincing evidence regarding how dietary factors may influence obesity-related carcinogenic pathways remains lacking. Thus, in the current project, the investigators aim to 1) examine the associations between trajectories of body fatness and plasma biomarker levels of the insulin/IGF system, sex hormones and biomarkers of inflammatory response including adipokines; 2) investigate how nutritional factors may modulate these obesity-related biomarkers. The investigators propose to utilize two large ongoing cohorts of US men and women, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
This work aims to describe the characteristics and methods of management of patients suffering from a solid tumor treated with immunotherapy admitted to intensive care.
The "Singapore Chinese Health Study" is a cohort study established by the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health in National University of Singapore, together with collaborators from several universities in the United States of America. This is a long-term study to help doctors and scientists understand the influence of diet, lifestyle and environment on the development of common diseases among Singaporean men and women. This includes cancer, heart disease, stroke, dementia, osteoporosis, high cholesterol and diabetes. The aim is to help us understand the causes of these diseases and to discover effective and efficient approaches for prevention and treatment.
The purpose of this study is to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of MK-7252 in healthy adults. Participants receive ascending doses of MK-7252 over five treatment periods. Each treatment period is separated by a 7-day washout period.
Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia serves a diverse group of the patient population. The majority of patients have a diverse cultural background, low literacy, and poor social-economic status. Medication adherence for chronic medical problems is in a range of 40-70%. Medication adherence among patients on oral anti-cancer therapy is not studied in detail. The main objective is to study medication adherence to oral anticancer agents in patients with low literacy and poor socio-economic status.
Public health policy is universal in recommending the adoption of low risk low-risk lifestyle behaviors for health promotion and prevention of chronic or non-communicable diseases (NCDs).These behaviors generally include achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular physical activity, smoking cessation, moderate alcohol intake, and adequate sleep. While there is a general consensus that adherence to any one of these low-risk lifestyle behaviors is associated with benefit, it is not clear if adherence to multiple behaviors would result in a larger benefit across different groups of people, conditions, and chronic disease outcomes. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), as part of the Dyslipidemia Guidelines Update, commissioned a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (a type of knowledge synthesis) using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to quantify the benefit of adherence to multiple low-risk lifestyle behaviors in relation to patient-important chronic disease outcomes (risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and death) and assesses the quality and strength of the evidence for this benefit.
To determine associations between dietary factors and risk of major chronic diseases and their risk factors
Develop a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open, parallel controlled noninferiority clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CathiportTM implantable drug delivery device
The goal of the McMaster Optimal Aging Portal is to be a trustworthy source for health information. The Portal team can see (through measuring analytics of website use) that thousands of people are using the Portal and the knowledge-sharing strategies in place (email alerts, Twitter and Facebook), with many more users added each month. Previous studies have measured the quality and trustworthiness of health information available online; others have studied the numbers and populations who use different types of information and how easy it is to use and understand. This study builds on that knowledge to find out: if easy-to-understand evidence-based messages reach members of the public, do these messages change what people know and think to do to stay healthy (in this case, what they know and think to do to lower their risk of cancer)?
Purpose: The Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (GNHS) aims to assess the determinants of risk of osteoporosis and cardio-metabolic diseases and changes in their relevant indices in nutritional aspects, as well as other environmental and genetic factors. Study design: GNHS is a community-based prospective cohort study. Participants: About 4540 apparently healthy residents, living in Guangzhou city (South China) for >5 years, aged 40-80 years, recruited between 2008 and 2013. Visits and Data Collection: Participants were/will be visited every three years by invited to the School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University. At each visit, face-to-face interviews, specimen collection, anthropometric measurements, DXA scanning, ultrasonography evaluation were/will be conducted. Up to May 2017, 3400 and 2380 subjects completed the 2nd and 3rd visits. Key variables: 1. Questionnaire interviews: Structured questionnaires were/will be used to collect the participants' socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, menstruation and reproductive history (women only), sleep quality, family history, psychological health, social support and participation, cognitive function, habitual dietary intake, use of supplements and history of chronic diseases. 2. Physical examinations: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure tests, handgrip strength, and usual gait speed. 3. DXA scanning: A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was/will be used to determine bone density and bone mineral content, bone geometry information, fat mass and muscle mass. 4. Ultrasonography evaluations: Ultrasonography evaluation was/will be performed to determine carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque, and fatty liver. 5. Specimen collections: Overnight fasting blood sample and early morning first-void urine sample and faces samples were/will be collected, separated and stored at −80°C till tests. 6. Laboratory tests: 1. Blood tests: Metabolic syndrome-related indices; inflammatory markers; sexual hormones and SHBG; genetic markers; nutritional indices (e.g., carotenoids; fatty acids; minerals, folate, betaine, choline, and vitamin D, etc.) 2. Urinary tests: Flavonoids and flavones; minerals; creatinine and renal function related markers 3. Fecal test: Gut microbiota and related metabolites. 7. Morbidity and mortality: Relevant data were/will be also retrieved via local multiple health information systems.