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Background: TAVR is a common therapy for people with heart problems as a better option than surgery. It stands for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. It is usually done by inserting a catheter (thin tube) through a groin artery. But this isn t safe for everyone. Researchers developed a new technique called transcaval access. The catheter is placed in the artery deep in the body by crossing through the wall of a deep vein. The connection between that vein and the aorta is closed with a new metallic device they are testing. This is called a transcaval closure device (TCD). Objective: To test the safety and early feasibility of closure of transcaval aortic access sites using the TCD after TAVR. Eligibility: Adults ages 21 and older undergoing TAVR for whom the procedure cannot be performed safely by the standard artery approach Design: Participants will be assessed by heart experts including cardiologists and surgeons. Participants will have TAVR by the transcaval approach. A small catheter will be passed between the largest vein in the body and the nearby largest artery (aorta), inside the abdomen. Through this catheter, the TAVR will be implanted in the usual way. After, doctors will implant the TCD by catheter to close the hole made in the aorta. Participants will be X-rayed. A dye will be injected to view the TCD device. Participants will get standard TAVR care afterwards. They will have physical exams, blood tests, and scans. Participants will have a follow-up scan within 1 month and after 12 months. Participants will have follow-up visits and phone calls 6 and 12 months after the procedure.
The trial objective is to investigate whether Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)-Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) and TransCatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) strategy for treatment of multivessel disease and aortic stenosis will be non-inferior to Coronary Artery By-pass Grafting (CABG) and Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement (SAVR) for a composite primary endpoint of all-cause mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary or valve re-intervention and life-threatening or disabling bleeding at one year.
The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the real-world performance of the CoreValve Evolut PRO transcatheter aortic valve, including leaflet function, in a prospective observational registry.
To date, no formal, randomized, prospective, head-to-head comparisons of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have been undertaken in the severe aortic stenosis (AS) population with small aortic annuli. Objectives of the present study are to compare the hemodynamic performance (incidence of severe PPM and ≥ moderate AR) and clinical outcomes (death, stroke, major or life threatening bleeding) between TAVR and SAVR in patients with severe AS and small aortic annuli.
Aortic stenosis is the most common valve disease requiring surgery in the Western world. It is defined by progressive calcification and fibrosis of the valve leaflets and restricted valve opening. This in turn exposes the heart muscle (left ventricle) to increasing pressure leading to heart muscle thickening (left ventricular hypertrophy, LVH) to normalise wall stress and maintain heart output (stroke volume). The only treatment available is relief of pressure overload by surgical or minimally invasive valve replacement (TAVI). Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis is a condition characterised by deposition of insoluble transthyretin protein (a small protein tetramer produced in the liver) in various tissues, predominantly in the heart. Although there are inherited forms caused by specific TTR gene mutations, most cases occur in older individuals with non-mutated TTR (wild-type). The finding of TTR plaques in elderly individuals is relatively common; in a post-mortem study 22-25% of patients over the age of 80 had evidence of cardiac amyloid deposition. However, there is significant progressive amyloid accumulation in a small percentage of individuals leading to heart muscle thickening and heart failure. No medical treatments are currently licensed although several agents are at advanced stages of clinical trials. As both the above conditions are increasingly common in the elderly population and characterised by increased heart muscle thickening, there is the potential for them to coexist unrecognised in individual patients. The prevalence of cardiac amyloidosis in clinical populations with significant aortic stenosis is not known however small series have estimated somewhere in the region of 6-29%. Other data have suggested that patients with aortic stenosis and concurrent cardiac amyloidosis have an adverse prognosis even despite AVR. It is therefore important to identify aortic stenosis patients with coexistent amyloidosis both in terms of predicting prognosis and because it may influence decisions about whether to proceed to valve intervention. PET/MR is an emerging technique, which combines the excellent temporal and spatial resolution of MRI with the sensitive molecular imaging of PET. PET/MR has significant advantages over PET/CT (the currently more widely used approach) in that it offers superior tissue characterisation, improved correction for cardiac and respiratory motion and major reductions in radiation exposure. Whilst there are concerns about its ability to provide reliable attenuation correction of the PET data, these issues appear to have been largely overcome with recent techniques proposed by our group. MR is also more naturally suited to the imaging of certain tissues in the body compared to CT including the left ventricular myocardium. In aortic stenosis, MRI has become the gold-standard technique for examining the heart muscle (myocardium) with the unique ability to assess its tissue composition. In particular both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping based techniques are able to detect heart scarring (fibrosis) which act as biomarkers of left ventricular decompensation and are strongly associated with poor patient outcomes. CMR is also the gold-standard non-invasive technique for detecting cardiac amyloid, which is associated with both a characteristic pattern of LGE and high native T1 values. However it is not currently able to differentiate between the two different types of cardiac amyloid TTR and AL amyloidosis, which have different prognoses and treatments. Preliminary studies conducted by our group have suggested that 18F-NaF PET when added to CMR can make this distinction on the basis that this tracer binds to TTR deposits but not AL deposits, may be able to differentiate between the two. Importantly we have also used the same PET tracer as a marker of calcification activity in the aortic valve, demonstrating its ability to predict disease progression and cardiac events. In this study, we will investigate whether PET/MR could be used as "one-stop" imaging in aortic stenosis in whom valve intervention is being considered to assess in detail functional and structural properties of both the valve and myocardium and identify cases of significant cardiac TTR amyloid deposition.
Aortic stenosis is the most common heart valve disease requiring intervention in high income countries. It is characterised by progressive valvular thickening, and restriction as well is hypertrophy and fibrosis of the left ventricle in response to pressure overload. The pathological processes in the left ventricle that ultimately result in heart failure and death are incompletely understood. Further elucidation of these processes and how they correlate with novel blood biomarkers may help us design new treatments and optimise the timing of surgical intervention. In brief, recruited patients with severe aortic stenosis and scheduled to undergo valve replacement surgery will be invited for some simple tests (blood sampling, ECG, echocardiogram). A septal myocardial biopsy will be taken at the time of surgery and the disease valve retained. These will be examined histologically and pathological changes compared with results obtained from ECG, echocardiogram and blood tests.
The PROTEMBO SF Trial is a prospective, observational, multi-center, intention-to-treat study of the safety and feasibility of the ProtEmbo Cerebral Protection System in subjects with severe symptomatic native aortic valve stenosis indicated for TAVR.
To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the SAPIEN XT (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) transcatheter heart valve implantation (TAVI) in Chinese patients with symptomatic severe calcific aortic stenosis who are considered at high risk for surgical valve replacement.
Aortic stenosis (AE) is a disease that has been increasing steadily in recent years in most countries, including Spain.Risk factors for the development of AE include age, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension, the classic risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. However, lipid-lowering therapy with statins and ezetimibe has not been shown to reduce the risk of long-term progression of AE by unknown mechanisms. All this suggests that subjects with HFhe have a high risk of developing AD, which has not been shown by the high coronary mortality in this population that precedes aortic calcification
This study is aimed to investigate the global transcriptome in order to determine the expression profile of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), as well as long noncoding- (lncRNAs) and micro noncoding-RNAs (miRNAs) in heart failure (HF) and in aortic stenosis (AS). The aim is to clarify their role in cardiac disease pathogenesis, as well as their potential as biomarkers. To this purpose, both tissue and blood specimens will be collected and patients will be compared to individuals not affected by cardiovascular diseases.