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The purpose of this study is to compare the results of combining two anesthetic medications (dexmedetomidine and propofol) in low doses with a standard dose of a single drug that is commonly used to provide sedation/anesthesia for MRI studies in young children (propofol). The drugs used for the MRI scan in this study will be chosen randomly. Half the patients will receive small doses of propofol and dexmedetomidine. The other half will receive propofol administered constantly throughout the scan. Other drugs that may be used include sevoflurane and nitrous oxide at the start of the sedation (for placing an intravenous), lidocaine (to reduce the pain of propofol injection) and glycopyrrolate (to prevent the heart rate from decreasing too low. The investigators will record 5 additional blood pressures and heart rates. If additional medications are required to complete the scan, the investigators will administer whatever is necessary. At the end of the study, the investigators will have an observer record the time it takes for participants to spontaneously open eyes , to be able to drink liquids and/or eat and to behave as before the study. Also, it is very important that the investigators find out from participants about changes in behavior, or if eating or sleeping habits were unusual following completion of the study. For that reason, the investigators will call participants in a day or so following the MRI scan. The investigators expect to recruit 70 children between the ages of 12 and 72 months for the study and hope to have the study completed in December 2018.
Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) can be considered the gold standard for postoperative analgesia in major abdominal surgeries, as proved by a lot of number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated that TEA was associated with superior postoperative analgesia, better patients' outcomes, reducing (systemic opiate requirements, ileus and pulmonary complications). The rectus sheath block (RSB) is effective for the surgeries that necessitated midline abdominal incisions as local anesthetics instillation will be within the posterior rectus sheath bilaterally providing intense analgesia for the middle anterior wall from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis in adults.
Magnesium sulfate safety profile has been documented by histopathological analysis in experimental studies. magnesium sulfate added to local anesthetics decrease postoperative opioid requirements.
Dexmedetomidine if add to patient controlled epidural analgesia for patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery may improve its effects.
Radiofrequency ablation has been used for treatment of solid neoplasms of the liver, lung, kidney and adrenal. Recently, EUS-guided RFA has become available and the device allows EUS-guided treatment of solid abdominal neoplasms. The procedure has been shown to be feasible in the porcine pancreas and was used to treat small groups of patients that are not suitable for surgery suffering from pancreatic cancers. The aim of the current study is to perform a multi-center prospective study on EUS-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of solid abdominal neoplasms. The hypothesis is that EUS-guided RFA is safe, feasible and effective for treating solid abdominal neoplasms.
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel non-thermal ablation modality with promise for revolutionizing the treatment for local solid tumors. With the growing demand for alternative and less invasive treatments for localized tumors, the investigators have seen the development and investigation of several tissue ablation modalities, including radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation, and cryoablation. Although these modalities have been efficacious, they have some disadvantages owing to their reliance on thermal energy for creating cell death.
Effective postoperative pain control results in decreased cardiac and pulmonary complications, patient satisfaction and early mobilization. A prospective, randomized comparative study was done of analgesic efficacy, opioid requirement and side effects in patients undergoing lower abdominal cancer surgeries. In Study Group Ultrasound guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block was given and control Group no TAP block was given. Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine was given to both group patients, and total good PCA demands in both the groups was studied.
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), a recently developed tumor ablation equipment, can be a non-invasive treatment for solid tumors. The principle of HIFU is physically focus the ultrasound point on the biological tissue to form high-intensity ultrasound focus, and kill tumor cells by the thermal effects, mechanical effects and acupuncture effects of the high-intensity ultrasound.
A feasibility study to provide 'proof of concept' of Elemental Diet (ED) as an acceptable/ useful feeding option for patient with inoperable malignant bowel obstruction and to examine the impact of ED on quality of life
The study compares between the efficacy, safety and impact on the quality of life of radiofrequency thermocoagulation and chemical neurolysis of bilateral thoracic splanchnic nerves in the management of refractory pain which developed in patients suffering from upper abdominal cancer.