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The current opioid epidemic has led to a renewed interest in exploring non-pharmacological techniques to treat post-operative pain. An increasing number of patients are suffering from the adverse effects of opioid use following surgery, including post-operative nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, immunosuppression, constipation, and most recently, addiction. In the United States, over $600 billion is spent every year on opioid addiction, including $79 billion related to opioid addiction following surgery. Despite many initiatives to decrease the use of opiates in the preoperative setting, opioids continue to be regularly prescribed before, during and after surgery. Although the risk of opioid addiction following surgery is recognized, the percentage of patients becoming addicted to opioids following surgery is not well understood. To date, there has been virtually no agreement regarding the duration and dosage that qualify for opioid dependence following surgery, nor that a clear estimation of the factors such as biological, psychosocial and socioeconomic that increase the risk of using opioids for extended periods of time after surgery. Therefore, in order to combat this growing health crisis at the ground level, it is incumbent upon the medical community to explore alternative methods of pain control to treat the surgical population in order to reduce the incidence of post-operative opioid addiction. Percutaneous Nerve Field Stimulation (PNFS) is one of these recognized methods that ongoing research has shown to be effective as a complementary method of pain management. While PNFS is not a novel concept, clinical indications of auricular field stimulation have been limited in the past due to requirement of bulky, stationary and non-disposable stimulators and electrodes. These technological limitations made it difficult to establish the real clinical potential of auricular stimulation for the perioperative management of pain in surgical patients, despite the demonstration that auriculotherapy has been shown to relieve pain in the postoperative setting. The NSS-2 BRIDGE (Appendix 1) is a battery operated and disposable percutaneous auricular nerve field stimulator (Innovative Health Solutions, Versailles, IN, USA), that was recently cleared by the FDA and assigned a Class II Risk Designation; a class which includes surgical drapes, pumps and power wheelchairs. The indication for the NSS-2 BRIDGE is for the treatment of clinical symptoms related to opioid consumption and opioid withdrawal. These symptoms include abdominal pain, anxiety and post-operative nausea and vomiting; conditions which are also present following major oncologic abdominal surgery. The use of the NSS-2 BRIDGE device has been demonstrated to provide significant analgesia in patients with abdominal pain syndrome, and clinical trials are ongoing to assess the benefit of this approach for post-operative pain management. As compared to the present use of opioids for perioperative pain management, the use of a complementary, non-pharmacologic approach offers the advantage of analgesia without the associated side effects.
Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) can be considered the gold standard for postoperative analgesia in major abdominal surgeries, as proved by a lot of number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated that TEA was associated with superior postoperative analgesia, better patients' outcomes, reducing (systemic opiate requirements, ileus and pulmonary complications). The rectus sheath block (RSB) is effective for the surgeries that necessitated midline abdominal incisions as local anesthetics instillation will be within the posterior rectus sheath bilaterally providing intense analgesia for the middle anterior wall from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis in adults.
Magnesium sulfate safety profile has been documented by histopathological analysis in experimental studies. magnesium sulfate added to local anesthetics decrease postoperative opioid requirements.
Dexmedetomidine if add to patient controlled epidural analgesia for patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery may improve its effects.
Effective postoperative pain control results in decreased cardiac and pulmonary complications, patient satisfaction and early mobilization. A prospective, randomized comparative study was done of analgesic efficacy, opioid requirement and side effects in patients undergoing lower abdominal cancer surgeries. In Study Group Ultrasound guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block was given and control Group no TAP block was given. Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine was given to both group patients, and total good PCA demands in both the groups was studied.
This study aims to compare the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG and 18F-FSPG PET/CT in lung, breast, and abdominal cancers before undergoing therapy. In addition, the role of 18F-FSPG PET/CT in evaluating therapy response and prognosis will also be evaluated.
Postoperative pain in pediatrics can usually be well controlled with a combination of analgesics including acetaminophen ( paracetamol) ,NSIADS, opioids , and local/regional anesthesia.The use of epidural and subarachnoid morphine for analgesia in adults has grown almost as quickly as Morton`s discovery of anesthesia in 1846. The application of these techniques to the pediatric patients has evolved much more slowly,although significant progress is being made by many investigators.
Postoperative observation of patients is based on the Early Warning Score (EWS). By using continuous wireless monitoring of vital parameters it may be possible to predict the risk of complications after abdominal cancer surgery. The object of this pilot study is to test the equipment and methods for the next phases. Patients will be monitored for 4 days postoperatively and data is analyzed retrospectively. Vital parameters are monitored with ECG, blood pressure monitor and pulseoximetry. In the analysis the investigators will compare the results from the continuous monitoring to the measurements made by the nurses and registered in the EWS. The primary outcomes for the pilot study are the frequency of measurements resulting in a single parameter score of 3 according to the EWS algorithm.
The study compares between the efficacy, safety and impact on the quality of life of radiofrequency thermocoagulation and chemical neurolysis of bilateral thoracic splanchnic nerves in the management of refractory pain which developed in patients suffering from upper abdominal cancer.
The purpose of this study is to determine if giving Cialis for 5 days prior to surgery, on the day of surgery along with the influenza vaccine and Cialis 10 days after surgery will have an affect at the cell level for decreasing the chances of the spread of disease post surgery.